December 2017

Special Issue on Celebrating 30 Years of Ocean Science and Technology at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Oceanography | December 2017



VOL.30, NO.4, DECEMBER 2017

Special Issue

Celebrating 30 Years of Ocean Science and Technology at the

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Oceanography | Vol.30, No.4

Oceanography | December 2017


VOL. 30, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2017


FROM THE GUEST EDITORS. Celebrating 30 Years of Ocean Science

and Technology at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

By F.P. Chavez, P.G. Brewer, and C.A. Scholin


The Coevolution of Midwater Research and ROV Technology at MBARI

By B.H. Robison, K.R. Reisenbichler, and R.E. Sherlock


Insights into the Biodiversity, Behavior, and Bioluminescence of Deep-Sea

Organisms Using Molecular and Maritime Technology

By S.H.D. Haddock, L.M. Christianson, W.R. Francis, S. Martini, C.W. Dunn, P.R. Pugh,

C.E. Mills, K.J. Osborn, B.A. Seibel, C.A. Choy, C.E. Schnitzler, G.I. Matsumoto,

M. Messié, D.T. Schultz, J.R. Winnikoff, M.L. Powers, R. Gasca, W.E. Browne,

S. Johnsen, K.L. Schlining, S. von Thun, B.E. Erwin, J.F. Ryan, and E.V. Thuesen


Creating the Art of Deep-Sea Experimental Chemistry with MBARI ROVs

By P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, P.M. Walz, and W.J. Kirkwood


Chasing the Future: How Will Ocean Change Affect Marine Life?

By J.P. Barry, D. Graves, C. Kecy, C. Lovera, C. Okuda, C.A. Boch, and J.P. Lord


Evolution of Monitoring an Abyssal Time-Series Station in the Northeast

Pacific Over 28 Years

By K.L. Smith Jr., A.D. Sherman, P.R. McGill, R.G. Henthorn, J. Ferreira, and

C.L. Huffard


High-Resolution AUV Mapping and Targeted ROV Observations of

Three Historical Lava Flows at Axial Seamount

By D.A. Clague, J.B. Paduan, D.W. Caress, W.W. Chadwick Jr., M. Le Saout,

B.M. Dreyer, and R.A. Portner

100 The Quest to Develop Ecogenomic Sensors: A 25-Year History of the

Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) as a Case Study

By C.A. Scholin, J. Birch, S. Jensen, R. Marin III, E. Massion, D. Pargett, C. Preston,

B. Roman, and W. Ussler III


Hourly In Situ Nitrate on a Coastal Mooring: A 15-Year Record and Insights

into New Production

By C.M. Sakamoto, K.S. Johnson, L.J. Coletti, T.L. Maurer, G. Massion, J.T. Pennington,

J.N. Plant, H.W. Jannasch, and F.P. Chavez

128 Climate Variability and Change: Response of a Coastal Ocean Ecosystem

By F.P. Chavez, J.T. Pennington, R.P. Michisaki, M. Blum, G.M. Chavez, J. Friederich,

B. Jones, R. Herlien, B. Kieft, B. Hobson, A.S. Ren, J. Ryan, J.C. Sevadjian, C. Wahl,

K.R. Walz, K. Yamahara, G.E. Friederich, and M. Messié


Celebrating 30 Years of Ocean Science and Technology

at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Oceanography | December 2017




Oceanography | Vol.30, No.4


The Oceanography Society

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Production of this issue of Oceanography was

supported by the Monterey Bay Aquarium

Research Institute through funds provided by

the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.


• Francisco Chavez, MBARI

• Peter Brewer, MBARI

• Chris Scholin, MBARI



Oceanography | Vol.30, No.4


(1) MBARI ROV Ventana in MBARI’s 375,000-gallon test tank in Moss Landing, California (Photo by

Todd Walsh). (2) Aerial view of MBARI campus in Moss Landing, California (Photo by Todd Walsh).

(3) MBARI ROV Tiburon video frame grab of Tiburonia granrojo, a new species of jelly discovered

and described by scientists at MBARI. (4) ROV Tiburon video frame grab of manipulator arm col-

lection of coral samples from Davidson Seamount. (5) MBARI R/V Rachel Carson on Monterey Bay

(Photo by Todd Walsh). (6) ROV Tiburon video frame grab of Vampyroteuthis infernalis, the vampire

squid. (7) MBARI R/V Western Flyer (Photo by Todd Walsh). (8) Illustration of emergent marine tech-

nology by Kelly Lance ©MBARI. (9) CTD recovery on R/V Western Flyer (Photo by Debbie Meyer).

(10) The Monterey Submarine Canyon based on multibeam bathymetric data ©MBARI. (11) ROV con-

trol room aboard R/V Rachel Carson (Photo by Kyra Schlining). (12) ROV Tiburon frame grab of an

undescribed comb jelly in the genus Lampocteis. (13) ROV Ventana video frame grab of Macropinna

microstoma, the barreleye fish. (14) LRAUV being deployed from R/V Paragon (© Kip Evans 2015).

(15) ROV Tiburon video frame grab of Laser Raman Spectrometer, DORISS, making measurements

at a seafloor vent.


















QUARTERDECK. Using Oceanography in the Classroom—Insight from a

Survey of TOS Members

By E.S. Kappel


FROM THE PRESIDENT. Educating Undergraduates About the Ocean

By A.C. Mix


MILESTONES. Thank You, Walter Munk, for Being There at the Beginning

By M. Briscoe


STUDENT PERSPECTIVE. Becoming an Ocean Advocate Through

Experiential Learning

By K. Dubickas and A. Ilich


RIPPLE MARKS. Birds with Fins, Fish with Wings: Pondering Penguins’


By C.L. Dybas


US Academic Fleet to Serve Undergraduates from Diverse Backgrounds

By S.K. Cooper and J.C. Lewis

149 CAREER PROFILES. Katherine Brodie, Research Oceanographer, US Army

Engineer Research and Development Center • Nicole Raineault, Vice

President of Exploration and Science Operations, Ocean Exploration Trust

Oceanography | December 2017


Ellen S. Kappel

Geosciences Professional Services Inc.

5610 Gloster Road

Bethesda, MD 20816 USA

t: (1) 301-229-2709

Contributing Writer

Cheryl Lyn Dybas


Oceanography (ISSN 1042-8275) is published by The Oceanography Society,

1 Research Court, Suite 450, Rockville, MD 20850 USA. ©2017 The Oceanography

Society Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted for individuals to copy articles

from this magazine for personal use in teaching and research, and to use figures, tables,

and short quotes from the magazine for republication in scientific books and journals.

There is no charge for any of these uses, but the material must be cited appropriately.

Republication, systemic reproduction, or collective redistribution of any material in

Oceanography is permitted only with the approval of The Oceanography Society.

Please contact Jennifer Ramarui at

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Santa Cruz

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Cornell University

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Associate Editors

The Oceanography Society was founded in 1988

to advance oceanographic research, technology,

and education, and to disseminate knowledge of

oceanography and its application through research

and education. TOS promotes the broad under-

standing of oceanography, facilitates consensus

building across all the disciplines of the field, and

informs the public about ocean research, innova-

tive technology, and educational opportunities

throughout the spectrum of oceanographic inquiry.






TREASURER: Susan Banahan


AT-LARGE: Dennis McGillicuddy




EDUCATION: Lee Karp-Boss





Jennifer Ramarui









The Oceanography Society

1 Research Court, Suite 450

Rockville, MD 20850 USA

t: (1) 301-251-7708

f: (1) 301-251-7709


Oceanography | December 2017

Oceanography | Vol.30, No.4

In connection with The Oceanography Society’s thirtieth anni-

versary in mid- November, TOS sent members an email request-

ing that they complete a short survey to enable us to under-

stand how they have used Oceanography magazine to support

the Society mission to advance education in the ocean sciences.

The survey contained just three questions:

1. Have you ever assigned Oceanography articles in the class-

room as a basis for discussion?

2. Have you used graphics from Oceanography articles in your


3. Tell us more about how you use Oceanography articles or spe-

cial issues in the classroom or for other educational purposes

such as informing policymakers or management. Please

name specific special issues or articles that you have found

most useful for classroom discussions.

We limited the survey to three questions to maximize the

number of respondents, and restricted the survey to TOS mem-

bers to keep things simple and ensure a rapid response. We were

rewarded. As of November 29, and within two weeks of its post-

ing, 200 TOS members had taken the survey.

Figures 1 and 2 show the responses to the simple multiple

choice questions. Figure 1 shows that nearly half of the survey

respondents have used one or more Oceanography articles in the

classroom during a semester, with most in the one-to-three arti-

cle range. Figure 2 shows that about 60% of respondents have

used Oceanography graphics in lectures, with a considerable

percentage—13.5%—using more than four graphics. These

numbers are very satisfying and demonstrate that Oceanography

is widely used for educational purposes. One note of caution

about these numbers, though: we know from the Question 3

responses that several student members completed the survey,

so the number of “never” responses may be artificially high.

After the two simple warm-up questions, the “essay question”—

Question 3—provided exactly the sort of specific information

we were seeking about how TOS members use Oceanography for

education and outreach purposes. Table 1 is a small selection of

several of the 143 responses we received to Question 3, edited

to fit. In addition to the classroom uses of Oceanography arti-

cles described in Table 1, one response said that they “display

Oceanography in our undergraduate office where we meet pro-

spective students and their parents. It is a wonderful conversa-

tion starter.” Another said: “I use it as an advising tool to ori-

ent students interested in careers in marine science.” Another

member wrote: “Occasionally use graphics to support new

program briefs to management.” Yet another member wrote:

“Provide issues from time to time to US Congressperson from

my Congressional District, US Senators from my state and Staff

(mainly for the staff).” All of the responses will be very useful in

helping TOS articulate the broader impacts of Oceanography to

current and future sponsors. The answers also provided some

ideas about how we may improve the usefulness of articles and

graphics—for example, by providing individual graphics that are

easily downloaded for classroom use.

Using Oceanography in the Classroom—

Insight from a Survey of TOS Members


FIGURE 1. Responses from TOS members to Question 1 (n = 200).

FIGURE 2. Responses from TOS members to Question 2 (n = 200).

QUESTION 2. Have you used graphics from

Oceanography articles in your lectures?


One to three graphics

in one semester

More than four graphics

in one semester




QUESTION 1. Have you ever assigned Oceanography

articles in the classroom as a basis for discussion?


One to three articles

in one semester

More than four articles

in one semester




Oceanography | December 2017

Thanks to all of the TOS members who participated in the

survey. We were truly overwhelmed by the response. If you did

not receive the survey email, or forgot to respond, we would still

like to hear from you, especially regarding Question 3. You can

email me your response at, or if you

are attending the Ocean Sciences Meeting in February, please

come by the TOS booth and share your stories about how you

use Oceanography in the classroom and also how we might make

the magazine more useful for educational purposes. For those of

you who responded to the survey online and will be attending

the Ocean Sciences Meeting, come to the TOS booth and chat

with us anyway—and also collect your extra beverage coupon.

Ellen S. Kappel, Editor

I have used graphics from Oceanography in many lec-

tures over the years. It’s one of the best sources for clear

and easy-to-understand illustrations and images of scientific

processes. Pictures of people at sea are great for showing

young people why a career in oceanography can be exciting!

I assign and discuss Oceanography articles that are relevant

to courses and lectures. The fact that the articles are by prac-

ticing scientists but (usually) written at a level that engages

undergraduates makes them useful to introduce students to

the topic and primary literature.

I use them as current review articles in classes “Biological

Oceanography” and “Anthropogenic Changes in the Ocean.”

Oceanography has very didactic graphs and concentrated,

but simple to understand texts. Maybe you could describe it

as a wide-ranging, up to date Oceanography textbook.

Many of the articles are concise summaries that are espe-

cially appropriate for lower division introductory classes.

We regularly use TOS articles for our first year graduate stu-

dents taking our topic-driven seminar class. The TOS articles

are excellent for overview material that the students must

then flesh out with additional readings from the literature

and then present meeting style presentation and then lead

follow-up discussion.

I have consistently recommended the articles to the commu-

nity college instructors in professional development activities

that I undertake.

I particularly like the “big picture” articles for classroom set-

tings. For example, there was a special issue several years

ago on larval dispersal. Much of the provided information

included basic concepts in the field that aren’t readily avail-

able in a BioOce textbook.

Special issues are great for framing an issue, especially for

instructors with high teaching loads who might not otherwise

have much time to research a topic.

Oceanography special issues are great compendiums of

articles on a single topic—bathymetry, ice-ocean exchange,

etc.—and these are really helpful for getting students up to

speed on a topic.

I find that they provide great summaries on a lot of topics for

my students as well as for myself when I prepare lectures.

The graphics are usually high quality and illustrate broader

concepts, which are great for classroom lectures.

The articles are available to all students and have become

staples in my graduate classes. I have and continue to use

too many to list here.

QUESTION 3. Tell us more about how you use Oceanography articles or special issues in the classroom or

for other educational purposes such as informing policymakers or management. Please name specific special

issues or articles that you have found most useful for classroom discussions. 

TABLE 1. Selection of Responses to Question 3 from November 2017 Online Survey of TOS Members (n = 143)

Oceanography | Vol.30, No.4

Among members of the ocean sciences

research community, everyone recog-

nizes the importance of the ocean, such

as its role in the climate system and

our economy. We understand that the

ocean provides critical food and energy

resources, routes for commerce, sites

for recreation, and much more. And we

know that beneath the seafloor, move-

ment of descending tectonic plates causes

some of the most devastating earth-

quakes and volcanoes. Yet much of the

public knows few or none of these fun-

damental facts. This lack of basic sci-

entific knowledge outside of academia

about the earth plays no small role in the

decline of funding for the ocean sciences

over the past few decades. In the long

run, our research programs will thrive

only if the public understands and val-

ues the need for exploration, discovery,

and study to better understand and care

for our planet. This speaks to the impor-

tance of our role as educators beyond our

traditional focus on research and gradu-

ate education, and our responsibility to

develop creative programs that both edu-

cate undergraduates about ocean topics,

and also provide tangible skills that they

can use when pursing jobs.

At least in the United States, it was

long thought that practicing oceanog-

raphers first needed an undergradu-

ate degree in one of the so-called “basic”

sciences—physics, chemistry, biology,

or geology. Relatively few universities

offered undergraduate courses in ocean-

ography. In much of academia, ocean-

ography remains a research-intensive,

applied field. Those attitudes are chang-

ing. Many undergraduates who are not

interested in becoming working ocean-

ographers would be motivated to learn

fundamental scientific concepts through

ocean examples. The ocean is a great

vehicle for teaching systems thinking—

its study demands interdisciplinary con-

nections and can make abstract scientific

concepts tangible for many students.

I recently conducted a highly nonscien-

tific survey about undergraduate ocean-

ography programs and heard from some

wonderfully dedicated educators who are

engaging undergraduates through expe-

riential learning. Here are a few examples

from the responses I received.





University of South Carolina School of

Earth, Ocean and Environment reported

on an exciting experimental program in a

“living and learning” community, includ-

ing an opportunity to live in a Green

Quad Dorm. Their non-major classes

are very popular, reaching thousands

of students each semester. The commu-

nity emphasizes laboratory and field

experiences. Claudia noted that while

“hands-on” classes are more expensive

to run than lectures, they are worth the

cost. The benefits of experiential learning

transcend any topic or any facts, because

these classes teach curiosity and creativ-

ity, and provide a toolkit for lifelong dis-

covery and learning—exactly the kind

of things needed for productive employ-

ment in any field.

The University of Washington School

of Oceanography—my alma mater—has

always had a strong experiential learn-

ing component to its undergraduate pro-

gram. With ready accessibility to Puget

Sound, the university’s enviable loca-

tion offers a wealth of opportunities for

hands-on discovery of ocean topics,

and its program includes opportunities

for students to work at sea. Tansy Clay

Burns at the University of Washington

wrote to me that, in addition to attracting

ocean sciences majors with a BS degree,

Educating Undergraduates

About the Ocean


New “old salts” returning from Research Experience for Undergraduates cruise aboard

R/V Oceanus, June 2017. Photo credit: Alan C. Mix

Oceanography | December 2017

the school includes options for a BA and

minors such as oceanography, climate,

Arctic studies, and ocean technology

attached to various other programs. The

program is reaching out to fill a variety of

needs, including attracting students who

might want to learn more about the ocean

while pursuing other career paths.

My own institution, Oregon State

University, is starting an innovative pro-

gram called the Marine Studies Initiative.

Note the word “studies” rather than

“science” in the name: the program is a

collaboration between the College of

Liberal Arts and the College of Earth,

Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences in a

university-wide commitment to extend

the reach of marine topics into areas of

arts, literature, and elsewhere. This ini-

tiative also includes a residential compo-

nent in which the students can spend a

few terms living by the ocean and absorb-

ing its rhythms. The goal is to engage stu-

dents who might not think of themselves

as oceanographers by using the ocean

examples for addressing global prob-

lems, from climate change, to coastal pol-

lution, to food from the sea. The State of

Oregon has contributed funds to make

sure students—including those from

diverse backgrounds who might not have

contemplated marine studies—can expe-

rience the ocean. Regardless of whether

these students become oceanographers,

they gain knowledge about the ocean and

the earth that will be useful in their future

careers and lives.

These programs in South Carolina,

Washington, and Oregon are just a few

examples of ongoing experiments in

ocean education. Other institutions

around the world also have excellent

programs for undergraduates and for

the public. Nevertheless, as a field we

could do far more. Experiential learn-

ing is labor intensive and expensive, and

it is difficult to scale hands-on programs

to reach a large number of students. But

overcoming these challenges is critical

to our work and to the people it benefits.

Our traditionally strong research pro-

grams are an asset that can be leveraged

for experience-based education, and in

turn an educated public will understand

the long-term needs of fundamental dis-

covery related to the ocean and many

other fields—research that in the long

run fuels economic vitality and inter-

national understanding.

The Oceanography Society would like

to facilitate the sharing of information

about undergraduate oceanography pro-

grams, including options for non-majors,

so that we can all learn from each other’s

successes and failures, develop best prac-

tices, and inspire new and innovative

undergraduate classes and programs. A

good place to get started thinking about

this topic is through reading the nearly

two decades of “The Oceanography





Oceanography that are written by expe-

rienced and creative undergraduate edu-

cators (see If

you would like to join a TOS commit-

tee on undergraduate education, let’s talk.

Your ideas are welcome.

Alan C. Mix, TOS President


Upcoming in

March 2018

Ocean Observatories Initiative

June 2018

Ocean Warming

September 2018 — Double Issue

Mathematical Aspects of

Physical Oceanography


Gulf of San Jorge,

Patagonia, Argentina

December 2018

Scientific Ocean Drilling:

Looking to the Future

March 2019

Salinity Processes in the Upper

ocean Regional Study (SPURS) – 2

Do you have an idea for a special issue

of Oceanography? Please send your

suggestions to Editor Ellen Kappel





Oceanography | December 2017

Oceanography | Vol.30, No.4


Thank You, Walter Munk,

for Being There at the Beginning

Walter Munk turned 100 on October 19, 2017. I first met Walter

almost half a century ago, when I was a young scientist work-

ing in Europe, and was in the process of changing my focus

from fluid mechanics to physical oceanography. At that time,

an older European colleague told me that there were just two

real oceanographers in the United States: Henry Stommel and

Walter Munk. Over the past 50 years, I’ve had the satisfac-

tion of working down the hallway from Henry (at Woods Hole

Oceanographic Institution), and of having contact with Walter

on a fair number of occasions. In addition to being a gregari-

ous and engaging gentleman, Walter has been an inspiring and

enthusiastic colleague to many of us, and a formative presence

to more than a few.

Walter played an important role in the creation of The

Oceanography Society. His eclectic approach to oceanogra-

phy and his penchant for speaking and writing simply, directly,

and clearly so that many, rather than just a few, could under-

stand him were already legendary—and inspired the mission of

Oceanography magazine. In our initial inquiries to colleagues

in 1987 prior to forming TOS, Walter was encouraging about

the Society’s goals and structure. In his closing remarks at the

Inaugural Meeting of TOS in 1989, he commented, “It is time for

the oceanographic disciplines to come together. It is time for an

Oceanography Society.” His full remarks are in Oceanography,

volume 2, number 2 (;

that issue also contains his initial article about the Heard Island

Experiment (, which

is a long story in and of itself. (I worked closely with Walter

through the Heard Island years, and we both learned a lot about

whales.) The 1989 article was Walter’s second in Oceanography;

his first was in volume 1, number 1, on ocean acoustic tomogra-

phy ( Over the years,

Walter has authored 14 submissions to Oceanography and has

been mentioned in the magazine over 200 times. Articles writ-

ten by or mentioning Walter now have more than 350,000 hits

on Google. And he is still working, on wind waves as it turns out,

a fitting return to one of his early successes: predicting the wave

conditions for the D-Day invasion of Normandy.

Walter is a strikingly gracious gentleman who has had an

enormous positive impact on our science and on the people

he has encountered, myself included. A recent biography and

tribute that appeared in 2016 in Acoustics Today (Volume 12,

pages 36–42) provides more context for these statements; no

need to repeat them here. Those of us working in oceanogra-

phy today are fortunate to have his personality and his intel-

lect as part of our culture. And TOS is fortunate to have had

his sincere and continuing interest in the success of our Society.

Carry on, Walter!


Mel Briscoe ( is President, OceanGeeks LLC,

Alexandria, VA, USA.


Briscoe, M. 2017. Thank you, Walter Munk, for being there at the beginning.

Oceanography 30(4):8,

By Mel Briscoe

Photo by Erik Jepsen/UC San Diego Publications

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