March 2017

Special Issue on International Cooperation in Harmful Algal Bloom Science

Oceanography | March 2017



VOL.30, NO.1, MARCH 2017

Special Issue on International Cooperation

in Harmful Algal Bloom Science

Oceanography | Vol.30, No.1

VOL. 30, NO. 1, MARCH 2017

Oceanography | March 2017





GEOHAB–The Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms

Program: Motivation, Goals, and Legacy

By R.M. Kudela, E. Berdalet, H. Enevoldsen, G. Pitcher, R. Raine, and E. Urban


Harmful Algal Blooms in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems: A GEOHAB

Core Research Project

By G.C. Pitcher, A.B. Jiménez, R.M. Kudela, and B. Reguera


Harmful Algal Blooms in Benthic Systems: Recent Progress and Future


By E. Berdalet, P.A. Tester, M. Chinain, S. Fraga, R. Lemée, W. Litaker, A. Penna,

G. Usup, M. Vila, and A. Zingone


Harmful Algal Blooms in Fjords, Coastal Embayments, and Stratified Systems:

Recent Progress and Future Research

By E. Berdalet, M. Montresor, B. Reguera, S. Roy, H. Yamazaki, A. Cembella,

and R. Raine


Globally Changing Nutrient Loads and Harmful Algal Blooms: Recent

Advances, New Paradigms, and Continuing Challenges

By P.M. Glibert and M.A. Burford


GlobalHAB: A New Program to Promote International Research, Observations,

and Modeling of Harmful Algal Blooms in Aquatic Systems

By E. Berdalet, R. Kudela, E. Urban, H. Enevoldsen, N.S. Banas, E. Bresnan,

M. Burford, K. Davidson, C.J. Gobler, B. Karlson, P.T. Lim, L. Mackenzie,

M. Montresor, V.L. Trainer, G. Usup, and K. Yin



Winter 2015/16: A Turning Point in ENSO-Based Seasonal Forecasts

By J. Cohen, K. Pfeiffer, and J. Francis


A Three-Dimensional Mapping of the Ocean Based on Environmental Data

By R.G. Sayre, D.J. Wright, S.P. Breyer, K.A. Butler, K. Van Graafeiland,

M.J. Costello, P.T. Harris, K.L. Goodin, J.M. Guinotte, Z. Basher, M.T. Kavanaugh,

P.N. Halpin, M.E. Monaco, N. Cressie, P. Aniello, C.E. Frye, and D. Stephens


VOL. 30, NO. 1, MARCH 2017




Oceanography | March 2017

Oceanography | Vol.30, No.1



QUARTERDECK. The Federal[scient]ist Papers

By E.S. Kappel


FROM THE PRESIDENT. TOS—The Times They Are a Changin’… Again

By A. Mix


RIPPLE MARKS. Ocean Takeover: Throughout the Seas, Cephalopods Rise Up

By C.L. Dybas

104 HANDS-ON OCEANOGRAPHY. Paleoclimate Reconstruction from Oxygen

Isotopes in a Coral Skeleton from East Africa: A Data-Enhanced Learning


By D.P. Gillikin, A. Verheyden, and D.H. Goodwin

108 THE OCEANOGRAPHY CLASSROOM. Learning Science in a Post-Truth World

By S. Boxall


CAREER PROFILES. Jo-Ann Rosario-Llantín, Consultant in Physical

Oceanography; Founder, Executive Director, and Principal Scientist, Coastal

and Environmental Research Applications Inc. • Erika Montague, Consultant


The Oceanography Society

P.O. Box 1931

Rockville, MD 20849-1931 USA

t: (1) 301-251-7708

f: (1) 301-251-7709


Send changes of address to

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click on Login, and update your profile.


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Please send corrections to

Corrections will be printed in the next issue

of Oceanography.


Production of this issue of Oceanography was

supported by grants OCE-0003700, OCE-

0326301, OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, and

OCE-1243377 from the US National Science

Foundation to the Scientific Committee on

Oceanic Research for GEOHAB activities;

the Intergovernmental Oceanographic

Commission of UNESCO; and the University

of Copenhagen. Additional funds were

provided by the Ida Benson Lynn Endowment,

University of California Santa Cruz.


• RAPHAEL KUDELA, Univeristy of California,

Santa Cruz

• HENRIK ENEVOLDSEN, Intergovernmental

Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO

• ED URBAN, Scientific Committee on Ocean



Oceanography | Vol.30, No.1


Aerial photograph of a Gonyaulax

polygramma bloom in False Bay,

South Africa, on February 23, 2007.

These blooms often lead to hypoxia,

triggering marine mortality events.

Photo credit: Anthony Allen

Photo credit: Scott Portelli

Oceanography | March 2017


Ellen S. Kappel

Geosciences Professional Services Inc.

5610 Gloster Road

Bethesda, MD 20816 USA

t: (1) 301-229-2709

Contributing Writer

Cheryl Lyn Dybas


Oceanography (ISSN 1042-8275) is published by The Oceanography Society, PO Box 1931,

Rockville, MD, 20849-1931 USA. ©2017 The Oceanography Society  Inc. All rights

reserved. Permission is granted for individuals to copy articles from this magazine for

personal use in teaching and research, and to use figures, tables, and short quotes from

the magazine for republication in scientific books and journals. There is no charge for

any of these uses, but the material must be cited appropriately.

Republication, systemic reproduction, or collective redistribution of any material in

Oceanography is permitted only with the approval of The Oceanography Society.

Please contact Jennifer Ramarui at

Gregg J. Brunskill

84 Alligator Creek Road

Alligator Creek, Queensland 4816


Margaret L. (Peggy) Delaney

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Planning and Budget

Santa Cruz

Kerr Hall, Rm. 209

Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA

t: (1) 831-459-4317

Charles H. Greene

Director, Ocean Resources &

Ecosystems Program

Professor, Department of Earth &

Atmospheric Sciences

Cornell University

4120 Snee Hall

Ithaca, NY 14853-2701 USA

t: (1) 607 275-1662

Kiyoshi Suyehiro

Principal Scientist

Research and Development Center

for Earthquake and Tsunami

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Yokohama, Japan

t: (81) 45-778-5800

James Syvitski

Executive Director of CSDMS

and Professor

University of Colorado-Boulder

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Peter Wadhams


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and Theoretical Physics

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Johanna Adams

Assistant Editor

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Associate Editors

The Oceanography Society was founded in 1988

to advance oceanographic research, technology,

and education, and to disseminate knowledge of

oceanography and its application through research

and education. TOS promotes the broad under-

standing of oceanography, facilitates consensus

building across all the disciplines of the field, and

informs the public about ocean research, innova-

tive technology, and educational opportunities

throughout the spectrum of oceanographic inquiry.






TREASURER: Susan Banahan


AT-LARGE: Dennis McGillicuddy




EDUCATION: Lee Karp-Boss





Jennifer Ramarui









The Oceanography Society

P.O. Box 1931

Rockville, MD 20849-1931 USA

t: (1) 301-251-7708

f: (1) 301-251-7709


Oceanography | March 2017

Session Proposals System Now Open

Session Proposal Deadline

3 May 2017

Abstract Submissions Open

mid-Jul y 2017

Abstract Deadline

6 Sept 2017

11–16 February • Portland, Oregon, USA

Oceanography | March 2017


The Federal[scient]ist Papers

As readers know, Oceanography is published by The Oceanography

Society, a private nonprofit organization. But in light of the ongoing

vigorous discussion and debate about the size and scope of the fed-

eral government, and particularly about the appropriate funding levels

for US science agencies, this may be a good time to acknowledge the

essential support that federal agencies have provided for special issues

of Oceanography over the past two decades. Since 1996, the Office of

Naval Research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,

the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National

Science Foundation, and the United States Arctic Research Commission

have sponsored most issues of Oceanography. Most frequently, special

issues have reviewed the science that resulted from a particular pro-

gram that an agency supported, some of which were multinational.

Other special issues have had invited papers on specific ocean-related

topics that were cross-program and cross-agency. US agencies also

generously sponsored publication of both issues devoted to women in

oceanography and the March 2016 special issue on graduate education

in the ocean sciences.

These special issues of Oceanography have been useful outlets for dis-

seminating information about government-supported ocean science

research outcomes both within and outside our community. Our sci-

ence articles are peer reviewed, are written in more accessible language

than a technical journal, and are freely and openly available on the

web, creating the potential for expanding the magazine’s audience. As

an example, recent articles in The Washington Post and The Guardian

specifically mentioned articles from the NASA-sponsored December

special issue section on Ocean-Ice Interaction. The online versions of

the newspaper articles linked to the Oceanography articles. Thanks to

social media, the articles generated an enormous spike in hits to the

Oceanography website.

Whatever the future may hold, I hope that Oceanography will remain

able to disseminate information about the valuable oceanographic

research conducted by federal agency scientists as well as scientists at

academic institutions who are funded by federal agencies. Given that

TOS membership represents 66 countries, it would be appropriate to

balance US coverage with more articles that describe research funded

by government agencies outside the United States.

I encourage submission of review articles about your government-

funded research program that articulates why your research is import-

ant and provides an accessible overview of your results and how they

affect the future of our planet (see author guidelines at

oceanography/guidelines). When published, everyone can then aid in

dissemination by promoting the articles and special issues on social

media. As a famous American said, “It takes a village.”

Ellen S. Kappel, Editor

June 2017

Autonomous and Lagrangian

Platforms and Sensors

September 2017

Sedimentary Processes Building a

Tropical Delta Yesterday, Today, and

Tomorrow: The Mekong System

December 2017

Celebrating 30 Years of Ocean Science

and Technology at the Monterey Bay

Aquarium Research Institute

In addition to the special issues articles,

Oceanography solicits and publishes:

• Peer-reviewed articles that chronicle

all aspects of ocean science and its


• News and information, meeting reports,

hands-on laboratory exercises, career

profiles, and book reviews

• Editor-reviewed articles that address

public policy and education and how

they are affected by science and


• Breaking Waves articles that describe

novel approaches to multidisciplinary

problems in ocean science

Special Issues



Oceanography | Vol.30, No.1

Long-term readers of Oceanography may already be aware

that I have an interest in the scientific presentation of geo-

graphic information and even coauthored a contribution to

Oceanography about the proper use of map projections

in oceanography more than a decade ago. (Krause and

Tomczak, 1995). While our contribution did not eliminate the

use of questionable projections from the scientific literature,

I can live with most of them (grudgingly). But Figure B2 of

the fascinating review of the possible contribution of large-

scale industrial cultivation of marine microalgae by Greene

et al. (2016) in our December 2016 edition exceeded my

tolerance level.

The figure, a “world map of relative fuel production

potential,” makes much argument about the relatively small

land area required to satisfy US or global liquid fuel demand

through the cultivation of microalgae. This would suggest

that the authors use a projection that offers area equiva-

lency, an impression enhanced by the depiction of Texas

for comparison with other land areas. But the figure is not

based on any scientific projection; while it does not include

a latitude/longitude grid, it appears to be based on a sim-

ple square-gridded latitude/longitude mesh, which does not

conserve any map properties.

Matters are made worse by the addition of a distance

scale, suggesting a map that allows the comparison of

distances across its area. But it is well known that area

equivalency and equidistance are mutually exclusive map

properties, and why an equidistant map is preferable to an

area equivalency map if the emphasis is on area compari-

son is hard to explain.

But distance is obviously not maintained in the map

depicted in Figure B2: It shows the 3,900 km between

Vancouver and New York as something close to 6,800 km;

even the area of Texas is overestimated by nearly 50%

based on the distance scale given.

Allow me to use the figure appearing in Greene et al.’s

otherwise excellent article to renew my plea for a scientific

approach to map displays in oceanography. Maybe review-

ers of future papers can make it a habit to look critically not

only at the text but also at the way in which the papers’ find-

ings are displayed in maps.

– Matthias Tomczak, Emeritus Professor of Oceanography,

School of the Environment, Flinders University of South Australia


Greene, C.H., M.E. Huntley, I. Archibald, L.N. Gerber, D.L. Sills, J. Granados,

J.W. Tester, C.M. Beal, M.J. Walsh, R.R. Bidigare, and others. 2016.

Marine microalgae: Climate, energy, and food security from the sea.

Oceanography 29(4):10–15,

Krause, G., and M. Tomczak. 1995. Do marine scientists have a scientific

view of the Earth? Oceanography 8(1):11–16,



The map in question originally appeared in Moody et al. (2014;

10.1073/pnas.1321652111). The authors of Greene et al. (2016) concur with

Dr. Tomczak’s points.

Dear Editor,


The origins of The Oceanography Society are rooted in bring-

ing together and recognizing individuals from all fields of

oceanography, representing the broad interests of mem-

bers in research, engineering, industry, policy, and educa-

tion, and the diversity and international nature of the society.

TOS members from all areas of oceanography will be consid-

ered for the Fellows Program. A recommendation for advance-

ment to TOS Fellow is appropriate after an individual has been

a TOS member for at least three years, depending on his or her

contributions to the field.

The main criteria for being elected a TOS Fellow are outstand-

ing and sustained contributions, and devotion to the broad

field of oceanography, commensurate with the founding prin-

ciples of the Society.

Nominations Deadline » October 31, 2017

Learn More »

TOS Fellows Program

Recognizing Individuals Who Have Attained Eminence in Oceanography Through

Their Outstanding Contributions to the Field of Oceanography or Its Applications


Oceanography | March 2017


Was Bob Dylan our muse? Although

he was really singing about something

else, I’d like to believe he was think-

ing about global warming and sea level

rise and the gathering of people in The

Oceanography Society.

Come gather ‘round people

Wherever you roam

And admit that the waters

Around you have grown

And accept it that soon

You’ll be drenched to the bone

If your time to you

Is worth savin’

Then you better start swimmin’

Or you’ll sink like a stone

For the times they are a-changin’.

Bob Dylan, ©1963/1991

Anyway, Bob won a Nobel Prize in

December, so let’s claim him. You all

know the song and can read the rest of the

lyrics to remember what it is really about.

The times are indeed changing as we

enter a new year, with a new administra-

tion in Washington, DC, new challenges,

and new opportunities. Changes in the

United States have hit like a tsunami, and

I’ve heard from many TOS members who

are feeling pretty nervous. As I start my

term as TOS President, I’d like to high-

light some things that aren’t changing,

and then some things that are.

First, thanks to strong and steady lead-

ership from Past President Susan Lozier

and a highly engaged Council over the

past two years, TOS is shipshape and

is riding on an even keel. We hope that

won’t change. Member engagement and

society finances are strong. Our journal

Oceanography is highly ranked (third in

impact factor of all ocean sciences jour-

nals), thanks to the stalwart efforts of lead


The Times They Are a Changin’… Again

editor Ellen Kappel, and is entirely open

access. And we are supremely blessed to

have Jenny Ramurai continue as Executive

Director. Jenny is the soul of TOS, and as

I said in my comments before presenting

the Jerlov Award to Curtis Mobley at the

Ocean Optics meeting in Victoria, Jenny

has a knack for making everything fun.

I spent the last year or so learning

about the inner workings of TOS, and

the most important thing I learned is that

TOS is, as always, here for its members.

But who are the members? Did

you know that TOS is, and has always

been, an international organization?

Although we are incorporated as a non-

profit in Washington, DC, and there-

fore bound by US law, our name is

“The Oceanography Society,” not “the

American Oceanography Society.” Our

founders chose this name intentionally,

and it gives us a global perspective. About

one-third of our membership comes from

outside the United States, and represents

66 nations. Of the past six meetings sup-

ported by TOS, half have been outside the

United States (Canada, Spain, Scotland).

All our members around the world are

important to the Society and to the field.

We are a community unified by our

love of the sea, and by our shared search

for truth through rational inquiry and

rigorous peer review. Oceanography is an

inherently international activity, and our

science thrives when minds, communi-

cations, and borders, are open. National

interests sometimes involve science, but

the science itself is apolitical. We stand

by our principles and affirm the need

for cooperation and collaboration in sci-

ence, along with freedom of inquiry, free-

dom to publish and publicize scientific

results, and the sanctity of scientific data.

Preserved well, our data age and grow in

value like a fine wine.

But what of politics? We all have our

own opinions, and from sitting in com-

mittees I can confirm that there is a broad

range of views among our members. By

our nonprofit charter, TOS is a scientific

organization, not a political one. What

does this mean? As an organization we

are specifically disallowed from partici-

pating in political campaigns either for

or against any candidates running for

office, and “no substantial part of the

activities of the corporation shall be…

attempting to influence legislation” (TOS

Articles of Incorporation, 1988). These

specific restrictions, which are a provi-

sion in the US tax code known as “The

Johnson Amendment,” have been true

(since 1954) of all nonprofit organiza-

tions incorporated in the United States.

Those of you watching current US news

will be aware that there is discussion of

repealing this amendment. We’ll see what

happens with that.

It is worth noting that these restric-

tions do not apply to our individual mem-

bers, who are, of course, free to influence

legislation and engage in political activ-

ity as they wish (other countries may have

laws that apply to our members there).

Further, the Johnson Amendment does

not infringe on the free speech of TOS to

say pretty much whatever it wants about

issues, as long as it isn’t about candidates

running for office or specific legislation.

So I will say it again—oceanography is

an inherently international activity, and

our science thrives when minds, com-

munications, and borders, are open. This

has always been the case, and this has not

changed, and we are free to advocate for

those principles.

Oceanography | Vol.30, No.1

Some things about TOS are chang-

ing, in good ways. First, TOS is grow-

ing. Rapidly. Our diversity is increasing,

reflecting positive efforts at inclusion.

For example, of current members who

joined in the first two years of the soci-

ety, 91% were male and 88% were from

the United States. At the beginning, in

spite of its international charter and the

best of intentions, TOS was effectively an

American boys’ club.

In contrast, of our members who

joined in the past two years, 56% were

female and, independent of gender, 35%

were from outside the United States

(in addition, some within the United

States were not US citizens, but we

don’t track that). 

We have not yet reached gender par-

ity overall (44% female), but we are on

a good path. Our international profile

continues to grow (now totaling 31%

non-US).  The TOS Council is approx-

imately gender balanced, and includes

international representation. We have not

tracked ethnicity, and we are trying to do

a better job there. We can be happy that

our efforts at increasing diversity are suc-

ceeding, but we will keep working at it,

and at promoting equal opportunity and

equitable treatment as our young ocean-

ographers move through their careers.

Our expanding membership reflects

the growing realization, especially among

our early career scientists, that we will

succeed as a field only if we band together

around our shared goals and needs. TOS

is a collaborative member-driven organi-

zation, and it shows. That gives me hope

for the future.

Nevertheless, we have all observed the

challenges faced by our younger gener-

ation. In response, we have made some

changes. TOS membership is now free

to all students, and we have reduced

membership costs for early career scien-

tists in postdoctoral positions. We want

to empower the new generation to orga-

nize and to reinvent the field and the

Society to better fit their needs.

This year we will roll out a mento-

ring program, first in prototype form

and hopefully later as a larger program,

designed to pair students with senior sci-

entists in academia, government, and the

private sector, and to conduct a conver-

sation across national boundaries about

careers, life, and exciting new direc-

tions for oceanography. Students, please

watch the TOS web page for announce-

ments. Senior scientists, please volunteer

as mentors—we need your help. This is an

“all hands on deck” activity.

Recognizing that young people may

face financial hurdles in completing their

dissertation research and transitioning

to careers, we have launched the TOS

Career Opportunity/Student Travel and

Research Support (COSTARS) Fund.

Voluntary donations are rapidly build-

ing this fund toward our initial goal, and

we will soon be able to offer some sup-

port for graduate students to attend bien-

nial Ocean Sciences Meetings, to join




and conferences, to travel for needed

research at specialized off campus facili-

ties, and to explore career opportunities

including internships in industry, gov-

ernment, nongovernmental organiza-

tions, and other ocean-relevant settings.

We encourage everyone to donate (see

link below). This is a great opportunity

for those of us with established or com-

pleted careers to give something back and

help our young people.

I’ll say more about our growing pro-

gram with the private-sector oceanogra-

phy community and other initiatives in

future columns.

So, we live in interesting times. Some

things are changing, and some things are

staying the same. One thing that will never

change is the character of the TOS mem-

bership as a community of scientists who

support each other as colleagues and as

people, without biases regarding national

origin, gender, ethnicity, belief systems,

or any of the fascinating and complicated

things that make us human. The people

who create the science come first, and

that is my favorite thing about TOS. It is

why I joined in 1987, it is why I stayed,

and it is why I am thrilled and honored

to start my term as TOS President. I want

to hear from you, so that TOS can under-

stand your joys and concerns, represent

you and better serve your needs. We are

here for you.

I write from Oregon, in early February,

as a hard rain is falling. I’m ready to

start swimmin’ and I hope you are too.

Gather ’round.

Alan Mix, TOS President


Do your part to support the next

generation of ocean scientists!

One of our new programs, focused on our student members, is the TOS COSTARS fund

(Career Opportunity/Student Travel and Research Support). Opening soon, this fund

will help graduate students to present their work at scientific conferences, to collabo-

rate with colleagues at other institutions and to investigate career opportunities. We

are still in fundraising mode and we encourage contributions, remembering the help

that we all got along the way. Donate now to the TOS COSTARS Fund and help gradu-

ate students prepare to enter the workforce!

To learn more about TOS COSTARS or to make a donation, go to:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116