December 2020

Special Issue on Understanding the Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Fisheries



VOL.33, NO.4, DECEMBER 2020








Oceanography | Vol.33, No.4

VOL. 33, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2020

Oceanography | December 2020

contents VOL. 33, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2020




FROM THE GUEST EDITORS. Introduction to the Special Issue

By E. Twigg, S. Roberts, and E. Hofmann


Offshore Wind Development in the Northeast US Shelf Large Marine

Ecosystem: Ecological, Human, and Fishery Management Dimensions

By E.T. Methratta, A. Hawkins, B.R. Hooker, A. Lipsky, and J.A. Hare


Considerations for Offshore Wind Energy Development Effects on Fish and

Fisheries in the United States: A Review of Existing Studies, New Efforts,

and Opportunities for Innovation

By R.L. Perry and W.D. Heyman


Offshore Wind Projects and Fisheries: Conflict and Engagement in the

United Kingdom and the United States

By C. Haggett, T. ten Brink, A. Russell, M. Roach, J. Firestone, T. Dalton, and B.J. McCay


Offshore Wind Farm Artificial Reefs Affect Ecosystem Structure and

Functioning: A Synthesis

By S. Degraer, D.A. Carey, J.W.P. Coolen, Z.L. Hutchison, F. Kerckhof, B. Rumes,

and J. Vanaverbeke


Offshore Wind Energy and Benthic Habitat Changes: Lessons from Block

Island Wind Farm

By Z.L Hutchison, M. LaFrance Bartley, S. Degraer, P. English, A. Khan, J. Livermore,

B. Rumes, and J.W. King


Effects of the Block Island Wind Farm on Coastal Resources: Lessons Learned

By D.A. Carey, D.H. Wilber, L.B. Read, M.L. Guarinello, M. Griffin, and S. Sabo


Acoustic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy on Fishery Resources: An Evolving

Source and Varied Effects Across a Wind Farm’s Lifetime

By T.A. Mooney, M.H. Andersson, and J. Stanley


The Interaction Between Resource Species and Electromagnetic Fields

Associated with Electricity Production by Offshore Wind Farms

By Z.L. Hutchison, D.H. Secor, and A.B. Gill

108 The Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Hydrodynamics and Implications

for Fishes

By J. van Berkel, H. Burchard, A. Christensen, L.O. Mortensen, O.S. Petersen,

and F. Thomsen

118 Setting the Context for Offshore Wind Development Effects on Fish

and Fisheries

By A.B. Gill, S. Degraer, A. Lipsky, N. Mavraki, E. Methratta, and R. Brabant





Oceanography | December 2020

Oceanography | Vol.33, No.4


Constructed in 2015–2016, Block Island Wind Farm

off the coast of Rhode Island was the first commercial

offshore wind farm in the United States. It provided

an opportunity to begin to understand the potential

effects of such development on coastal resources in

the US Atlantic, a focus of several articles in this special

issue. Photo credit: Ørsted


The Oceanography Society

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Support for this special issue was provided by

the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management’s

Office of Renewable Energy Programs and

the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind Energy

Technology Office in the Office of Energy

Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Neither the United States Government nor any

agency thereof, nor any of their employees,

makes any warranty, express or implied, or

assumes any legal liability or responsibility for

the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of

any information. The views and opinions of

authors expressed herein do not necessarily

state or reflect those of the United States

Government or any agency thereof.


Emily Twigg, The National Academies of

Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Susan Roberts, The National Academies of

Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University



VOL.33, NO.4, DECEMBER 2020










QUARTERDECK. A Decade of Career Profiles: Recommendations

for Job-Hunting

By E.S. Kappel


FROM THE PRESIDENT. Looking Back into the Future: Ocean Sciences

Post 2030

By M. Visbeck


COMMENTARY. Fostering Global Science Networks in a

Post-COVID-19 World

By A.J. Hobday, C. Robinson, E.J. Murphy, A. Newton, M. Glaser, and S. Brodie


RIPPLE MARKS. Lovely, Dark, and Deep: Forests Behind the Tide

By C.L. Dybas

128 WORKSHOP REPORT. Leveraging Design Principles to Inform the

Next Generation of NASA Earth Satellites

By J.P. Scott and E. Urquhart

130 THE OCEANOGRAPHY CLASSROOM. How to Teach Motivating and

Hands-On Laboratory and Field Courses in a Virtual Setting

By M.J. Glessmer

The Council is the governing body of the Society. Voting in this election is an important function of

membership. The persons elected will participate in directing the affairs and determining the future

of the Society.

The TOS Council election is being conducted electronically. All TOS members were sent an email mes-

sage from The Oceanography Society containing a unique ballot link. If you are a TOS member and

did not receive this message, please contact Jenny Ramarui, TOS Executive Director ( or

301-251-7708) to receive voting instructions. All votes must be cast by January 31, 2021 (11:59 EST).

The Oceanography Society

thanks the following for

their time, dedication, and

valuable contributions to

the organization.

Alan Mix

Past President

Magdalena Andres

Physical Oceanography

Charles Greene

Biological Oceanography

Carolyn Scheurle


Learn more at


Oceanography | December 2020


Ellen S. Kappel

Geosciences Professional

Services Inc.


Vicky Cullen


Johanna Adams


Oceanography contains peer-reviewed articles that chronicle all aspects of

ocean science and its applications. The journal presents significant research,

noteworthy achievements, exciting new technology, and articles that address

public policy and education and how they are affected by science and tech-

nology. The overall goal of Oceanography is cross-disciplinary communica-

tion in the ocean sciences.

Oceanography (ISSN 1042-8275) is published by The Oceanography Society,

1 Research Court, Suite 450, Rockville, MD 20850 USA. Oceanography arti-

cles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and repro-

duction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appro-

priately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the

changes that were made to the original content. Third-party material used

in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated

otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in

the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission

directly from the license holder to reproduce the material. Please contact

Jennifer Ramarui at for further information.

The Oceanography Society was founded in 1988 to

advance oceanographic research, technology, and

education, and to disseminate knowledge of ocean-

ography and its application through research and

education. TOS promotes the broad understand-

ing of oceanography, facilitates consensus building

across all the disciplines of the field, and informs the

public about ocean research, innovative technology,

and educational opportunities throughout the spec-

trum of oceanographic inquiry.


PRESIDENT: Martin Visbeck



SECRETARY: Allison Miller

TREASURER: Susan Banahan


AT-LARGE: Richard Crout




EDUCATION: Carolyn Scheurle





Jennifer Ramarui

























Claudia Benitez-Nelson

University of South Carolina

Ian Brosnan

NASA Ames Research Center

Grace Chang

Integral Consulting Inc.

Margaret L. (Peggy) Delaney

University of California, Santa Cruz

Philip N. Froelich

Duke University

Charles H. Greene

Cornell University

William Smyth

Oregon State University

Kiyoshi Suyehiro

Yokohama Institute for Earth Sciences


Peter Wadhams

University of Cambridge

Oceanography | December 2020

Oceanography | Vol.33, No.4

The Career Profiles Column

Needs Your Help!



Oceanography publishes “career profiles” of marine scientists who

have pursued fulfilling careers outside of academia. These profiles

are intended to advise ocean sciences graduate students about

career options other than teaching and/or research in a university

setting. They also include wisdom on how to go about the job search.

We need your help finding new people to profile! Please take five,

ten, or even fifteen minutes of your time to come up with some

names. Self-nominations are accepted!

Please send contact information to


In this Oceanography section, contributing authors share all of

the relevant information on a homemade sensor or instrument

so that others can build, or build upon, it. The short articles also

showcase how this technology was used successfully in the field.

Oceanography guest editors Melissa Omand and Emmanuel

Boss are seeking contributions to DIY Oceanography. Contribu-

tions should include a list of the materials and costs, instructions

on how to build, and any blueprints and codes (those could be

deposited elsewhere).

For information on submission requirements go to

See the library of DIY Oceanography articles at



Seen in Oceanography

True Colors of


Guidelines for Effective and Accurate

Colormap Selection

By Kristen M. Thyng et al.

…wherever color is used to represent

numerical values, its role transitions from

a mere aesthetic nicety to carrying the

responsibility of conveying data honestly

and accurately.

Send Us Your Feedback!

Have questions or comments for the Student Rep?

Interested in being a highlighted student?

Want to share your best career tips and tricks?

We need your input!

» and @fishy_chrissy

Follow Us

The Oceanography Society




Number 22 – March 15, 2019


TOS Student Highlight

ISAIAH MILTON. I am a third-year marine and environmental science major work-

ing toward my Bachelor of Science degree at Hampton University. I became enam-

ored with marine biology in middle school after the father of a friend of mine came in

to talk about his occupation. He works for NOAA and he was studying marine mammals and how we

affect their migration. I do not remember every detail, but I do know that he sparked my perpetually

growing interest in studying the marine science.

When I was accepted to Hampton University in 2016, I did not know all of the things I was getting

myself into for the next four years. This department has offered me so many academic and research

opportunities, and connections with people and programs that have significantly changed my life

for the better. I had enlightening and inspiring summer research experiences because of this depart-

ment. I have done research in the Maryland Coastal Bays on Blue Crabs and the bacteria infecting

them through the University of Maryland Eastern Shore, and I have scuba dived on the coral reefs of

Mo’orea, French Polynesia, through the Diversity Project at UCLA.

After completing these research projects, I was able to attend the ASLO conference through the

ASLO Multicultural Program (ASLOMP) two years in a row to present my research. I have made great

connections that have pushed me to pursue my PhD after I graduate. I am so grateful for the experi-

ences I have had in the past three years here at Hampton and in the field of marine science.

Ocean Sciences Meeting 2020

Call for Input

Camille Pagniello is the TOS Student Rep-

resentative on the 2020 Ocean Sciences

Meeting Planning Committee. She and

her counterparts from AGU and ASLO are

building upon experiences from the 2018

OSM to create exciting events for next

year’s meeting. Ideas from TOS student

members are welcome, please send them

to Camille at

31 Tips for Thriving in

Graduate School (the last 7)



25. Laughter is good for you. And so is

keeping a good sense of humor.

26. Goals are important for progress.

Set long term and short term goals.

Review regularly.

27. Don’t write a script about things to

come. Be attentive as the journey

unfolds and follow.

28. You might not have all the information

you need or want. It is OK to ask

questions. Ask!

29. Learn through active listening

and observing. Also, look for the


30. (originally the last one): Change

rhetoric and reality from surviving to

thriving in graduate school. Shared

responsibility. Please join.

31. It’s hard to thrive without a mentor.

Find at least one, maybe more

than one.

From the Rep

Self-assessment and


How do we know if we’re

doing “enough”? If we’ll finish on time? If

we’ll be competitive on the job market?

I’m a fourth-year PhD student, and I

just submitted my first lead-author paper.

For the first three years, I was so sensitive

to my classmates submitting papers—it

felt like everyone around me was building

their resumes, and I wasn’t.

The wonderful flexibility that we have in

research comes at a price—we must learn

how to assess ourselves. We (with the help

of advisors and collaborators) decide when

the project is ready for submission. We

(mostly) decide how many hours we work,

and when, and where. Throughout our

schooling, we are assessed using grades,

which can largely be relative to our class-

mates. It makes absolutely perfect sense

that we use our classmates as yardsticks

against which to measure our effort and


The reality, though, is that no two proj-

ects can be compared. Once we’ve been

doing this science thing long enough, we’ll

know intuitively that each project moves at

its own pace. Sometimes it takes months to

perfect a laboratory technique, and other

times we are able to do a new analysis with

pre-existing data. I think a lot of our anxiet-

ies in graduate school are normal “growing

pains” as scientists, and I’ll talk more about

that next month.

I’d love to hear from you about how you

deal with self-assessment—write to me at or @fishy_chrissy

on Twitter and Instagram!

— Chrissy

Have You Read...?

From academia to industry: Seven tips

for scientists making the leap. Crystal

Romeo Upperman shares her advice after

moving out of the lab and into the private

sector. Nature,


True Colors of


Guidelines for Effective and Accurate

Colormap Selection

Seen in Oceanography



Comparing Indigenous and Western

Scientific Knowledge of the Ocean

By Joseph Genz et al.



Help Freshen

Your TOS Resources

Web Page

Have you used the Graduate Student/

Early Career Resources pages on the TOS

website? If so, tell us what you like about

it. If some types of resources are missing

that you’d like to have, please let us know

that, too. This page is for you. Help us

keep it fresh and useful. Send all ideas to

Jenny at

Send Us Your Feedback!

Have questions or comments for the Student Rep?

Interested in being a highlighted student?

Want to share your best career tips and tricks?

We need your input!

» and @fishy_chrissy

Follow Us

The Oceanography Society




Number 23 – April 18, 2019


TOS Student Highlight

NANA KAMIYA. I’m a third-year PhD engineering student at Kyoto University. I am

investigating subduction zones using paleo-geothermal analyses and rock mechan-

ics experiments. As an undergraduate, I majored in geology and conducted struc-

tural geology fieldwork on land. For my PhD, I am concentrating on engineering aspects of geology,

performing consolidation tests. Rock engineering can inform different geological processes, thus

pursuing studies in the engineering department is very interesting and worthwhile for me.

When I was a second-year master’s student, I joined International Ocean Discovery Program

Expedition 370, Temperature Limit of the Deep Biosphere off Muroto, as a physical properties spe-

cialist. The two-month expedition was aboard Chikyu, the Japanese scientific drilling vessel that is

capable of penetrating deep below the seafloor. The science party was composed of microbiologists,

geochemists, sedimentologists, and physical properties specialists. We probed the temperature of

limit of life by exploring the combined geological structure, chemical environment, and population

of microbes as revealed through drilling. This experience was very exciting. I found that the field of

geology is like a house of microbes! The combined geology and microbiology discussions made me

see geology in a whole new way.

Combining the knowledge gained from samples collected from both land and beneath the sea is

important for understanding subduction zones. Until now, I have mainly analyzed on-land samples,

but the active subduction zone is located in the ocean. I look forward to doing some more marine

geology based on my experiences on Chikyu.

More Resources

Conversations with Women of Color

in STEM: #Vanguard STEM

Try an episode of this live, monthly web-

series featuring a rotating panel of women

of color in STEM discussing a wide variety

of topics including their research interests,

wisdom, advice, tips, tricks and commen-

tary on current events.

From the Rep

Growing Pains

Did anyone else have really

bad growing pains as a kid?

I remember in elementary school that my

shins hurt so badly, just because I was

growing. I hadn’t done anything to cause

it, and there wasn’t really anything to do

except wait for it to get easier.

This is how I’ve started to think about

my stress and anxiety in graduate school.

First of all, I think that most people in their

twenties have these feelings. In some

ways, grad school is like your first job—it’s

a roughly five-year contract, and both

you and your supervisors are feeling out

whether it’s a good fit for you. In nearly

any first job, there is a big learning curve;

there’s wondering if you’re learning it

fast enough or doing it well enough, and

there’s worrying if it’s even what you want

to be doing.

There might be some ways to ease this

stress and uncertainty, but mostly it just

abates with time. You have to keep walk-

ing, writing, culturing bacteria, building

instruments, analyzing data, whatever it

is…and one day you look around and real-

ize you’re a scientist. We should certainly

work to reduce the types of stresses that

stem from systemic societal issues, but we

shouldn’t fear the growing pains. If you’re

reading this, you’re doing great—trust the

process and keep going.

I’d love to hear what you think—write

to me at or @fishy_

chrissy on Twitter and Instagram!

— Chrissy

Have You Heard?

WorkLife with Adam Grant


You may want to check out this podcast.

Titles include:

» How to love criticism

» Become friends with your rivals

» Networking for people who hate


» And more

Hello PhD

Or, how about this podcast? Titles include:

» How to give a perfect poster presentation

» The secret life of pets (in grad school)

» Conference like the pros

» Plus many, many more

Seen in Oceanography


By Lawrence R. Pomeroy, et al.

Methods and concepts to explore

the significance of microbes in the

ocean’s web of life.

Tell Us What You Think About

the Career Profiles Page

Oceanography has now been publishing

“career profiles” for almost a decade. We

profile ocean scientists who have careers

outside of academia. The idea for this col-

umn came from you —graduate students.

• Is 10 years enough? Shall we discontinue

this column after December 2019?

• Are we asking the right questions?

• Are we profiling the types of careers

you’d like to hear about?

• Is there some other column you’d rather

us publish?

Please send your ideas and comments

to Oceanography Editor Ellen Kappel at

Send Us Your Feedback!

Have questions or comments for the Student Rep?

Interested in being a highlighted student?

Want to share your best career tips and tricks?

We need your input!

» and @fishy_chrissy

Follow Us

The Oceanography Society




Number 24 – May 15, 2019


TOS Student Highlight

THOMAS MORROW. Here’s my history in a headline: “Florida man moves to Idaho

to study seafloor structure and tectonics.” I am a PhD candidate at the University of

Idaho, with a BS in geology from the University of Florida. Despite my efforts to move

further inland, I study oceanic lithosphere rheology, deformation, and tectonics thanks to inclusive

approaches to data sharing, open access repositories, and telepresence-enabled cruises.

Most data I work with (e.g., bathymetry, satellite gravity measurements) are from openly available

compilations such as the Global Seafloor Fabric and Magnetic Lineation Database and the Global

Multi-Resolution Topography Data Synthesis. One of the most frustrating experiences I’ve had as

a graduate student is waiting years for another researcher to share their observations, even after

publication or embargoes end. Certainly, scientists that collect observations deserve the first oppor-

tunity to publish their findings, but once this information is out, they should share data as openly

as possible.

I recently participated via telepresence in a NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer cruise to the Pacific

Ocean. Immediately after, I added newly collected bathymetry soundings to a manuscript while the

Okeanos Explorer crew sent the data on to their open access archive. Competition for funding and

ship time have often been limiting factors in my graduate school experience, but open access data,

like the GSFML and GMRT compilations, and telepresence-enabled cruises, like the Okeanos Explorer

program, remedy these constraints and make our research communities more inclusive. They allow

students—regardless of where they live—to publish compelling results, even when they can’t easily

access field opportunities or analytical facilities.

Mental Health Resources

• Psychology Today. Find a therapist

using this listing of mental health profes-

sionals. https://www.psychologytoday.


• Mental Health in the Sciences. Nature

series offering stories and advice on

how to maintain good mental health in

the hyper-competitive science environ-



• PhDepression. Support and resources

for PhDs, post-grads, and grad students.

From the Rep

It’s the 70th Annual

Mental Health Month!

Since 1949, Mental Health

America has highlighted the importance

of mental health in May. This year’s theme

focuses on the value of animal compan-

ionship, spirituality, humor, and social

connectedness. There are some great

resources on their website (http://www.

Mental health isn’t something that

matters only for people who have been

diagnosed with mental health disorders.

Mental health encompasses how any indi-

vidual handles their feelings—stress, grief,

anger, and also happiness. It is about how

we deal with life, including health, relation-

ships, and work difficulties. Ultimately, tak-

ing care of our mental health will prevent

us from burning out.

Tending to our mental health is per-

sonal and multi-faceted. For me, a thera-

pist is absolutely essential. For most of us,

strong connections to a support network

is required. Some folks have medication as

part of their toolkit. Others rely on regular

exercise, spending time with friends or

family, cuddling with their pet, watching

their favorite Netflix shows, and not check-

ing their email from home.

Building a toolkit doesn’t mean you

won’t have bad days, but your bad days

will be a lot less likely to turn into bad

weeks, months, or years. Resilience, not

perfection, is the goal—and resilience is

about how you bounce back, not whether

you stumble.

Be kind to yourself. Value your mental

health. Set the boundaries you need. Try

out some new habits. Or, you know, take

a day off from holding perfectly to your

habits. And if you’re struggling, maybe try

reaching out to a friend, mentor, or your

campus mental health office.

— Chrissy

Have You Read?

Three Tips for Giving a Great Talk

» Tip No. 1: Find a central focus

» Tip No. 2: Get the details right

» Tip No. 3: Present clearly

Read the full article in Science: https://doi.

org/ 10.1126/science.caredit.aax7352

Have you read the latest issue of

Oceanography Student News?

Each newsletter includes a regular column by the student

representative to the TOS Council, profiles of TOS student

members, information about student activities related to

TOS-sponsored meetings, and links to relevant student

resources and articles in Oceanography magazine. Feel

free to forward the links to the newsletters to other stu-

dents, or print out a copy and post it on your department

bulletin board. Any questions? Email TOS Student Rep

Chrissy Hernández at

After issuing an open call to the TOS membership for nom-

inations, the Council selected eleven members for the new

TOS Justice, Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (JEDI) Committee.

Susanne Craig, Co-Chair, NASA Goddard Space Flight

Center/Universities Space Research Association

Beth Orcutt, Co-Chair, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences

Mona Behl, University of Georgia Sea Grant

EeShan Bhatt, MIT/WHOI Joint Program

Dick Crout, Naval Research Laboratory

Erin Meyer-Gutbrod, University of South Carolina

Frank Muller-Karger, University of South Florida,

College of Marine Science

Tashiana Osborne, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Charitha Pattiaratchi, The University of Western Australia

James Pierson, University of Maryland Center for

Environmental Science

Amber Shearer, Garden School Foundation



Oceanography | December 2020

After publishing 83 career profiles over the course of a little more

than a decade (, Oceanography’s

profiles feature may be coming to a close. Keen readers of this

December issue and the most recent September issue may have

noticed the absence of any career profiles at the end of the mag-

azine. I prefer not to fold a feature of the magazine that, at least

according to web statistics, remains very popular. The problem

is finding people to profile and who are willing to be profiled,

which has become a time-consuming task. Without suggestions

from Oceanography readers, I have to do the legwork, which for

the most part means spending time scrolling through LinkedIn

pages. I have found and profiled some excellent people this way,

but over time this technique has become less useful as industry

has become much better at shielding staff emails.

Five years ago, my Quarterdeck column reflected on how

the career profiles published in Oceanography demonstrated

that working toward a PhD in ocean sciences lets students

hone a variety of marketable skills (

oceanog.2016.21). That column included some of the best

responses to the question we ask of each person we profile: What

did your oceanographic education (or academic career) give you

that is useful in your current job? As a decadal wrap-up to this

column, here are some of the many excellent responses to the

final question we ask:

Do you have any recommendations

for new grads looking for jobs?


• Don’t wait for the perfect job to start applying. In this case,

practice does make perfect. If you have already gone through the

process, you will be ready when the perfect job does come up.

• Don’t ignore the Internet. Get a profile on LinkedIn. Fill out

your profile completely. Make a website. Employers do their

homework, too.

• Don’t be afraid to take risks. Sometimes a different path ends up

being the most fruitful.

• Don’t do this alone. Lean on your network inside and outside

academia. And once you succeed, make sure to pay it forward.

• Don’t underestimate yourself. You are all highly capable people.

It just doesn’t always feel that way when you are in a room full

of other highly capable people.

• Don’t give up. It takes work to find the job that’s right for you.

You may not immediately find the right job. But keep trying—

you can do it!

– Kim Martini, Senior Oceanographer, Sea-Bird Scientific


If you know for sure that you want to go into policy, don’t do a PhD.

It’s not necessary—first-hand experience in the policy trenches

is more valued. If you have done a PhD, there are still plenty of

opportunities in policy, but you must be an excellent writer and

communicator. Having a strong, supportive network is so import-

ant to getting you through the inevitable tough times and setbacks.

And don’t worry if you don’t have a specific career plan—work on

developing valuable skills, and the opportunities will follow.

– Miriam Goldstein, Director of Ocean Policy and Managing

Director of Energy and Environment, Center for American Progress


Your science PhD or master’s degree shouldn’t be the bulk of your

resume’s work experience. You likely won’t get a job because of

your degree, though it may help you once you’re in the position.

You’ll need to be able to show you have the skills for a specific job,

regardless of your degree. Figure out what position titles mean—

nonacademic jobs use words like “coordinator” or “specialist,” and

these terms mean different things in different fields. You need to be

able to describe your skills in nonacademic language.

– Marley Jarvis, Outreach and Education Specialist,

Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington


My experience affirms that you never know who you are going to

run into if you don’t reach out. This includes both people at the

university and in surrounding communities. Many universities are

surrounded by a town or a city where there are endless opportu-

nities to start dialogues with people you would never meet in class

or the lab. People like to tell their stories and how they got where

they are. So get outside your comfort zone and start inviting peo-

ple for coffee and to have those conversations. Even if it helps you

figure out what you don’t want to do, no enlightening conversation

is wasted, and you would be surprised how small policy and sci-

ence circles really are.

– Aaron Goldner, Energy Policy Advisor, Office of

Senator Sheldon Whitehouse



Recommendations for Job-Hunting

Oceanography | Vol.33, No.4

Look for opportunities through your professional societies that you

might not be able to access on your own from grad school. This

could be serving on a policy or communication committee, partic-

ipating in a congressional visits day, or taking a leadership posi-

tion in the society itself. These posts can put you in the orbit of

people from different backgrounds and in different places in their

careers—great folks to tap as you explore your options.

– Katie Matthews, Deputy Chief Scientist, Oceana


(1) Put yourself out there. Let people know you are interested in

positions outside of academia. (2) Conduct informational inter-

views and network. This will give you a sense for the types of posi-

tions you may want to pursue post-academia. (3) Update your

LinkedIn profile and get business cards. These are currencies many

sectors use for networking. (4) Practice your elevator speech. What

are your skills and what excites you? (5) Think outside of the box

and leave the “supposed to’s” behind. I have met hundreds of sci-

entists since leaving academia who made a similar transition and

hold positions in, for example, industry, finance, start-ups, and

government. The career paths are endless.

– Sarah Bender, Program Officer, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation


I have three recommendations. (1) Recognize that most scientists

will not work in academia. Find the skills that you excel at as well

as the elements that keep you excited, and find work that enables

you to both employ your skills and enjoy your work. (2) Capitalize

on the unbelievable skill set that you have attained in your edu-

cation. In reality, an education in science (and especially a PhD)

is light years beyond what most people will ever achieve, in both

knowledge and experience. Use this confidently. (3) Network, net-

work, network. The best jobs, the best opportunities, and the best

future all lie in the people you know and what they can do for you.

Ask your friends, colleagues and mentors for help…they will give it.

– Paul Bunje, Senior Director of Oceans, XPRIZE Foundation


Re-reading these smart and helpful answers makes me not quite

ready to give a fond farewell to a feature that provides the few

pages in each issue specifically dedicated students’ career con-

cerns. Oceanography can continue to publish additional career

profiles of people who have left academia as the opportunities

present themselves. But it can do so more often if you would

please take five, ten, or even fifteen minutes of your time to come

up with some names to send to me (

Your effort will be appreciated!

Ellen S. Kappel, Editor

Oceanography | Vol.33, No.4



One of the most meaningful aspects of being a

member of The Oceanography Society (TOS) is the

opportunity to recognize and celebrate our col-

leagues’ accomplishments.

Three medals are now open for nomination. Please

take this opportunity to recognize a colleague for

their exceptional achievements and contributions to

the ocean sciences.

The WALTER MUNK MEDAL is given bienni-

ally to an individual ocean scientist for extraordi-

nary accomplishments and novel insights in the

areas of physical oceanography, ocean acoustics, or

marine geophysics.


biennially to an individual ocean scientist for extraor-

dinary accomplishments and novel insights in the

areas of marine geoscience, chemical oceanography,

or paleoceanography.

The MARY SEARS MEDAL is given biennially

to an individual ocean scientist for extraordi-

nary accomplishments and novel insights in the

areas of biological oceanography, marine biology,

or marine ecology.


SEPTEMBER 30, 2021

Oceanography | December 2020

Looking Back into the Future: Ocean Sciences Post 2030



A decade ago, ocean scientists looked with hope to the future.

In early 2021, we launched the UN Decade of Ocean Science for

Sustainable Development with great anticipation. It was hailed

as the beginning of a change in direction that would enrich the

spectrum of ocean sciences by adding new initiatives that we

described then as transformative ocean science solutions for sus-

tainable development, connecting people and our ocean.

Since the beginning of this century, it had been clear to

experts and world leaders that business as usual was leading to a

decline in ocean health. There was concern that ocean pollution,

resource extraction, and climate change would compromise criti-

cal ocean ecosystem services important to humanity.1 Under rap-

idly increasing pressures, not only the ocean, but in fact most of

the plant’s ecosystems, possibly no longer had the ability to cope

or rebound. Significant human-induced changes—specifically

those related to climate change2—were expected to threaten the

future of humanity by the end of the twenty-first century.

In a landmark year, 2015, world leaders came together, and in

the spirit of global cooperation, proclaimed four global frame-

works for action: the Paris Agreement on climate change,3 the

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction,4 the New Urban

Agenda,5 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.6

The latter document was entitled “Transforming Our World:

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.” This agenda

was seen as a plan of action for people, the planet, and prosper-

ity. All countries and all stakeholders, acting collaboratively, were

called upon to implement this ambitious plan. The signatories

were determined to take the bold and transformative steps that

were seen as urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable

and resilient path. They pledged that no one would be left behind.

Against this backdrop of global policy, the ocean commu-

nity posed the question: How can our ocean science community

work together with society to move from the “ocean we had” to

the “ocean we wanted”? And, what is the “science we need” to

get to the “ocean we want”?7 We wanted an ocean science that:

• Used the 2030 Agenda as a central framework to identify

and address the most pressing societal questions related to

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)14 and related SDGs

• Was co-designed and co-delivered in a multi-stakeholder

environment to be relevant and responsive across the entire

value chain, from knowledge generation to applications and

services to use of science for solutions

• Was solutions-focused and contributed to a wide variety of

potential solutions that included policy, decision-making,

management and governance frameworks, as well as technol-

ogy development and innovation

• Where needed, was big, audacious, forward-looking, and

spanned geographies

• Reached across disciplines and actively integrated natural and

social science disciplines

• Embraced local and indigenous knowledge as a key knowl-

edge source

• Was transformative because of who was doing it or where it

was being done, including in both less developed and devel-

oped countries

• Strove for generational, gender, and geographic diversity in

all their manifestations

• Was communicated in forms that could be widely understood

across society and that triggered excitement about the ocean

and behavioral change

• Was shared openly and available for re-use

Moreover, 10 specific Ocean Decade Challenges were formu-

lated to guide the development of large, global programs to sup-

port these goals and ambitions (Box 1; IOC, 2020).

As the final preparations for the launch of the Ocean Decade

were under way, the coronavirus raged through the world and

additional challenges emerged. The pandemic reminded us that

the 2030 Agenda documents lacked emphasis on resilience, and

science was missing in the SDGs. I am happy to report that the

new goals focused on knowledge generation (science included).

However, we were possibly too optimistic about what could be

done in 10 years regarding capacity building and global equal-

ity. We achieved a lot, but there is more to do. Now, in the 2030s,

ocean literacy has improved significantly and global learning

and problem solving have become the norm. Ocean pollution is

better understood, but we simply did not manage to remove all

the sources. Plastics in the environment and the high levels of

CO2 remain intractable problems globally.

During the hardships of the 2020 pandemic, we rapidly

learned that virtual meetings could be easy and productive. I

vividly remember discussions about the pros and cons of vir-

tual Ocean Sciences Meetings. The coronavirus likely acceler-

ated many of the exciting innovations that are now available for

1; 2; 3

agreement.pdf; 4; 5;

6; 7

Oceanography | Vol.33, No.4

such large, international conferences. For decades, several thousand aca-

demic ocean scientists would travel around the globe biennially to meet

in places such as Hawai‘i, San Diego, and New Orleans. We used to give

12-minute-long presentations with three minutes of questions and no time

for deep discussion. Today, in 2030, this way of conducting conferences

seems inconceivable.

At the OceanObs19 meeting, held in September 2019 in Honolulu, data

sharing and easy access to platforms were hotly debated. Everyone was

worried about the possible decline of in situ systems. After the recent global

agreement on benefit sharing, we now see a sustained and growing ocean

observing system that has 10-year planning horizons, builds in innovation

cycles, and serves the public needs. Last year’s OceanObs 29 focused on

how autonomous genome samplers could become smart enough to trans-

mit only relevant information. Moreover, there was deep discussion on a

proposal from the Indo-Pacific island states for a higher resolution, in situ

ocean observing system that would help to support sustainable growth

and wealth while respecting their strict protection measures. More in situ

data are needed to inform their knowledge-driven and responsive oper-

ations planning and to supplement targeted information expected from

several small satellites that will be launched next year.

I also recall discussions about a “Digital Twin of the Ocean,” a con-

cept that would employ digital technologies to integrate all European

ocean assets into a consistent, high-resolution, multidimensional, near-

real-time description of the ocean.8 In 2030, most governments now have

access to a variety of technologies of discovery, simulation, and informa-

tion sharing. The digital twin concept is now routinely used for planning

and optimizing our blue economy, establishing ocean restoration zones,

and precisely defining ocean interventions. No new wind farm can obtain

a permit to operate without fully optimizing its location and cross check-

ing for co-beneficial use of the affected ocean space.

Looking through my records and notes from the end of 2020, I found

the following correspondence: “Dear Andone (Lavery), my time as presi-

dent of TOS is coming to and end. I look back with satisfaction upon four

exciting years in my role as president-elect and president. Our ocean com-

munity has accomplished a lot and hopefully served TOS members well.

From deep in my heart, I wish you a lot of energy, fortune, satisfaction,

and success for your TOS presidency. I am looking forward to supporting

you in completing the TOS 2030 Strategy. I have no doubt that under your

leadership TOS will grow, ably respond to community needs, and prosper.”

Today, I relish fond memories of my time as president of The Oceanog-

raphy Society and remain grateful for the community I then had the plea-

sure to work for.

Martin Visbeck, TOS President


IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO). 2020. United Nations

Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2021–2030: Implementation Plan,

v. 2, 44 pp.,



Box 1. UN Decade of Ocean

Science for Sustainable

Development Knowledge and

Solutions Challenges

Challenge 1: Understand and map land- and sea-based

sources of pollutants and contaminants and their poten-

tial impacts on human health and ocean ecosystems,

and develop solutions to remove or mitigate them.

Challenge 2: Understand the effects of multiple stress-

ors on ocean ecosystems and develop solutions to

monitor, protect, manage, and restore ecosystems

and their biodiversity under changing environmental,

social, and climate conditions.

Challenge 3: Generate knowledge, support innovation,

and develop solutions to optimize the role of the ocean

in sustainably feeding the world’s population under

changing environmental, social, and climate conditions.

Challenge 4: Generate knowledge, support innova-

tion, and develop solutions for equitable and sustain-

able development of the ocean economy under chang-

ing environmental, social, and climate conditions.

Challenge 5: Enhance understanding of the ocean-

climate nexus and generate knowledge and solutions

to mitigate, adapt to, and build resilience to the effects

of climate change across all geographies and at all

scales, and to improve services including predictions

for the ocean, the climate, and the weather.

Essential Infrastructure Challenges

Challenge 6: Enhance multi-hazard early warning

services for all geophysical, ecological, biological,

weather, climate, and anthropogenic related ocean and

coastal hazards, and mainstream community prepared-

ness and resilience.

Challenge 7: Ensure a sustainable ocean observing

system across all ocean basins that delivers accessible,

timely, and actionable data and information to all users.

Challenge 8: Through multi-stakeholder collaboration,

develop a comprehensive digital representation of the

ocean, including a dynamic ocean map, that provides

free and open access for exploring, discovering, and

visualizing past, current, and future ocean conditions in

a manner relevant to diverse stakeholders.

Foundational Challenges

Challenge 9: Ensure comprehensive capacity develop-

ment and equitable access to data, information, knowl-

edge, and technology across all aspects of ocean sci-

ence and for all stakeholders.

Challenge 10: Ensure that the multiple values and ser-

vices of the ocean for human well-being, culture, and

sustainable development are widely understood, and

identify and overcome barriers to behavior change

required for a step change in humanity’s relationship

with the ocean.

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