June 2018

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VOL.31, NO.2, JUNE 2018

Special Issue on

Ocean Warming

VOL. 31, NO. 2, June 2018

+1 425 643 9866 | seabird@seabird.com | seabird.com

Introducing the New

SeaFET V2 Ocean pH Sensor


Improved Features:

‣ Greater reliability

‣ Simplified sampling and command set

‣ Improved data resolution

‣ Significantly reduced power consumption

‣ Easier setup, deployment, and data processing

‣‣ Can be upgraded from the SeaFET V1

Oceanography | June 2018


VOL. 31, NO. 2, June 2018


FROM THE GUEST EDITORS. Introduction to the Special Issue on

Ocean Warming

By P.J. Durack, A. Sen Gupta, and L.H. Smedsrud


The Ocean’s Role in Climate

By R.W. Schmitt


Ocean Warming: From the Surface to the Deep in Observations and Models

By P.J. Durack, P.J. Gleckler, S.G. Purkey, G.C. Johnson, J.M. Lyman, and T.P. Boyer


Southern Ocean Warming

By J.-B. Sallée


Chaotic Variability of Ocean Heat Content: Climate-Relevant Features

and Observational Implications

By T. Penduff, G. Sérazin, S. Leroux, S. Close, J.-M. Molines, B. Barnier, L. Bessières,

L. Terray, and G. Maze


An Ocean View of the Global Surface Warming Hiatus

By W. Liu and S.-P. Xie


Variability in Makassar Strait Heat Flux and Its Effect on the Eastern

Tropical Indian Ocean

By L.K. Gruenburg and A.L. Gordon


Simulation and Analysis of Hurricane-Driven Extreme Wave Climate

Under Two Ocean Warming Scenarios

By B. Timmermans, C. Patricola, and M. Wehner

100 Ocean-Ice Interactions in Inglefield Gulf: Early Results from NASA’s

Oceans Melting Greenland Mission

By J.K. Willis, D. Carroll, I. Fenty, G. Kohli, A. Khazendar, M. Rutherford, N. Trenholm,

and M. Morlighem

109 Projections of Future Sea Level Contributions from the Greenland and

Antarctic Ice Sheets: Challenges Beyond Dynamical Ice Sheet Modeling

By S. Nowicki and H. Seroussi


Increased Arctic Precipitation Slows Down Sea Ice Melt and Surface Warming

By R. Bintanja, C.A. Katsman, and F.M. Selten

126 Ocean Warming and the Reefs of Palau

By P.L. Colin

136 Trends in Benthic Macrofaunal Populations, Seasonal Sea Ice Persistence,

and Bottom Water Temperatures in the Bering Strait Region

By J.M. Grebmeier, K.E. Frey, L.W. Cooper, and M. Kędra










TW: Subtropical Waters

MW: Mode Waters

IW: Intermediate Waters

CDW: Circumpolar Deep Waters

BW: Bottom Waters

No warming or cooling


Processes at play; see caption


~0.05°C per Decade

~0.2°C per Decade

1,000 m

4,000 m

















Annual Heat Content Anomaly (1022 J)


Oceanography | June 2018

Oceanography | Vol.31, No.2


The Oceanography Society

1 Research Court, Suite 450

Rockville, MD 20850 USA

t: (1) 301-251-7708

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Please send corrections to magazine@tos.org.

Corrections will be printed in the next issue

of Oceanography.


The cover photo was taken in August 2015

north of Svalbard in the Arctic. Sailing

through sea ice is the now retired Norwegian

Polar Institute research vessel Lance. The

expedition was part of a

2015 polar bear survey

during which polar bear

numbers were estimated in

the Svalbard et Barents Sea

regions. Taken from a heli-

copter, the photo shows

late summer sea ice that

is thin, fractured into small

floes, and covered with

melt ponds. An iceberg is

in the foreground. Photo

credit: © Nick Cobbing



Special Issue on

Ocean Warming



VOL.31, NO.2, JUNE 2018

152 Evidence for Adaptation from the 2016 Marine Heatwave in the

Northwest Atlantic Ocean

By A.J. Pershing, K.E. Mills, A.M. Dayton, B.S. Franklin, and B.T. Kennedy

162 Categorizing and Naming Marine Heatwaves

By A.J. Hobday, E.C.J. Oliver, A. Sen Gupta, J.A. Benthuysen, M.T. Burrows, M.G. Donat,

N.J. Holbrook, P.J. Moore, M.S. Thomsen, T. Wernberg, and D.A. Smale

174 Impacts of Ocean Warming on Acoustic Propagation Over Continental

Shelf and Slope Regions

By J.F. Lynch, G.G. Gawarkiewicz, Y.-T. Lin, T.F. Duda, and A.E. Newhall


182 Marine Host-Pathogen Dynamics: Influences of Global Climate Change

By R.E. Cohen, C.C. James, A. Lee, M.M. Martinelli, W.T. Muraoka, M. Ortega,

R. Sadowski, L. Starkey, A.R. Szesciorka, S.E. Timko, E.L. Weiss, and P.J.S. Franks

194 Slow Volcanoes: The Intriguing Similarities Between Marine Asphalt

and Basalt Lavas

By Y. Marcon, H. Sahling, I.R. MacDonald, P. Wintersteller, C. dos Santos Ferreira,

and G. Bohrmann



QUARTERDECK. A Really Tough Problem for Scientists to Solve

By E.S. Kappel


FROM THE PRESIDENT. 30 Years of TOS and the Wisdom of Our Founders

By A.C. Mix


PERSPECTIVES. Advice for Young Scientists on Fruitful Membership in the

Scientific Community

By E. Boss


Production of this issue of Oceanography

was supported by:









Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


University of New South Wales Sydney


University of Bergen

Oceanography | Vol.31, No.2

Oceanography | June 2018


Ellen S. Kappel

Geosciences Professional Services Inc.

5610 Gloster Road

Bethesda, MD 20816 USA

t: (1) 301-229-2709



Vicky Cullen

PO Box 687

West Falmouth, MA 02574 USA

t: (1) 508-548-1027



Cheryl Lyn Dybas



Johanna Adams




Oceanography contains peer-reviewed articles that chronicle all aspects of

ocean science and its applications. The journal presents significant research,

noteworthy achievements, exciting new technology, and articles that address

public policy and education and how they are affected by science and technol-

ogy. The overall goal of Oceanography is cross-disciplinary communication in

the ocean sciences.

Oceanography (ISSN 1042-8275) is published by The Oceanography

Society, 1 Research Court, Suite 450, Rockville, MD 20850 USA. ©2018 The

Oceanography Society Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted for indi-

viduals to copy articles from this magazine for personal use in teaching and

research, and to use figures, tables, and short quotes from the magazine for

republication in scientific books and journals. There is no charge for any of

these uses, but the material must be cited appropriately.

Republication, systemic reproduction, or collective redistribution of any mate-

rial in Oceanography is permitted only with the approval of The Oceanography

Society. Please contact Jennifer Ramarui at info@tos.org.


Claudia Benitez-Nelson

University of South Carolina


Ian Brosnan

NASA Ames Research Center


Grace Chang

Integral Consulting Inc.


Margaret L. (Peggy) Delaney

University of California, Santa Cruz


Philip N. Froelich

Duke University


Charles H. Greene

Cornell University


William Smyth

Oregon State University


Kiyoshi Suyehiro

Yokohama Institute for Earth

Sciences, JAMSTEC


Peter Wadhams

University of Cambridge


The Oceanography Society was founded in 1988

to advance oceanographic research, technology,

and education, and to disseminate knowledge of

oceanography and its application through research

and education. TOS promotes the broad under-

standing of oceanography, facilitates consensus

building across all the disciplines of the field, and

informs the public about ocean research, innova-

tive technology, and educational opportunities

throughout the spectrum of oceanographic inquiry.






TREASURER: Susan Banahan


AT-LARGE: Dennis McGillicuddy




EDUCATION: Carolyn Scheurle





Jennifer Ramarui




» https://www.bakerdonelson.com


» https://www.integral-corp.com/


» http://sciencemedia.nl/


» https://sea-birdscientific.com


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The Oceanography Society

1 Research Court, Suite 450

Rockville, MD 20850 USA

t: (1) 301-251-7708

f: (1) 301-251-7709

email: info@tos.org



Oceanography | June 2018

Oceanography | Vol.31, No.2

Host Sponsors

Proud Partners

Gold Sponsors

Contact us

Conference Secretariat: info@icp13.com.au | Phone: 02 9254 5000


13th International Conference on


The Conference will be hosted at

The University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Key Dates

Call for Abstracts Open

1 September 2018

Early Bird Registration Close

28 February 2019

Standard Registration Open

1 March 2019

Call for Abstracts Close

20 April 2019


PERSPECTIVES. Unanticipated Benefit of an Outreach Program

By J.A. Yoder


PERSPECTIVES. Science Outreach Using Social Media: Oceanography

from the Lab to the Public

By A. Meyer, A.K. Pavlov, A. Rösel, J. Negrel, P. Itkin, L. Cohen, J. King, S. Gerland,

S.R. Hudson, L. de Steur, P.A. Dodd, L. Crews, M. Bratrein, M.A. Granskog,

and N. Cobbing



Nyepi, a Balinese Day of Silence

By R. Williams, C. Erbe, I.M.I. Dewantama, and I.G. Hendrawanx


OCEAN POLICY. Marine Species Range Shifts Necessitate Advanced Policy

Planning: The Case of the North Atlantic Right Whale

By E.L. Meyer-Gutbrod, C.H. Greene, and K.T.A. Davies


RIPPLE MARKS. Stirrings in the Muck: Fiddler Crabs Emerge from Burrows

Earlier in Spring—Crab-Specialist Herons Migrate in Sync

By C.L. Dybas


Waypoints in Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Since 1850

By W.J. Bolster

218 CAREER PROFILES. Katie Matthews, Deputy Chief Scientist, Oceana •

Jeff Standish, Manager, Corporate Sustainability, Institute on the

Environment, University of Minnesota



Oceanography | June 2018

Host Sponsors

Proud Partners

Gold Sponsors

Contact us

Conference Secretariat: info@icp13.com.au | Phone: 02 9254 5000


13th International Conference on


The Conference will be hosted at

The University of New South Wales (UNSW)

Key Dates

Call for Abstracts Open

1 September 2018

Early Bird Registration Close

28 February 2019

Standard Registration Open

1 March 2019

Call for Abstracts Close

20 April 2019


A Really Tough Problem

for Scientists to Solve

Good scientists have many positive attributes that should be attractive to scien-

tists and non-scientists alike—curiosity, patience, long-term views, and opti-

mism about solving problems. From our perspective, it seems perplexing that

we sometimes have difficulty connecting with the public. But today, perhaps

the scientist’s personality type is precisely what leaves us disconnected from

people who simply do not share our worldview or who listen to leaders who

find it expedient to ignore what science can contribute to our society. How

do we connect with a population that simply lacks curiosity about the natural

world or the role humans have played in modifying it? How do we articulate

that working backward from conclusions to facts doesn’t solve problems? How

do we frame a response if they want answers now, or next week, not in two or

even ten years when we scientists may determine that we have enough data

to address a question satisfactorily (and will know, even then, that with more

data, the answer may change)? What do we tell this segment of the public who

doesn’t perceive there is even a problem to solve? What if they can agree that

there is a problem but figure it is too big to solve or simply think it is impos-

sible to solve, certainly not in their lifetimes, so why bother doing anything?

Our community needs to be clear-eyed about the fact that while our pub-

lic outreach programs have some impact in educating the public, we are most

likely only reaching the self-selected population who want to participate in

such events and are already at least somewhat excited by science. And we need

to do more than hope, pray, protest, and/or vote to be governed by execu-

tive branch officials and legislators who respect scientists and scientific find-

ings and whose words and actions demonstrate that attitude. In short, we

need to take matters into our own hands and craft compelling words and

images to connect with people who currently don’t see science as an instru-

ment that can measurably improve their lives and help solve some seemingly

intractable global problems.

Fortunately, we’re scientists. We’re patient and optimistic. If we can solve

difficult scientific and technical challenges, we can solve this communications

problem, too. But we need smart, creative ideas from all corners of our com-

munity. Please send them to me at ekappel@geo-prose.com.

Ellen S. Kappel, Editor

September 2018

Mathematical Aspects of Physical


December 2018

Gulf of San Jorge, Patagonia,


March 2019

Scientific Ocean Drilling:

Looking to the Future

June 2019

Salinity Processes in the Upper

ocean Regional Study (SPURS) – 2

September 2019

Partnership for Interdisciplinary

Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO)

December 2019

Flow Encountering Abrupt

Topography (FLEAT)


Do you have an idea for a special

issue of Oceanography? Please send

your suggestions to Editor Ellen Kappel

at ekappel@geo-prose.com.





Oceanography | Vol.31, No.2


Student News


Have you read the latest issue of

Oceanography Student News? Each news-

letter includes a regular column by the

student representative to the TOS Council,

profiles of TOS student members, infor-

mation about student activities related

to TOS-sponsored meetings, and links to

relevant student resources and articles in

Oceanography magazine. Feel free to for-

ward the links to the newsletters to other

students, or print out a copy and post it

on your department bulletin board. Any

questions? Email TOS Student Rep Stefanie

Mack at studentrep@tos.org.

Check Out Our Career Profiles Page!


Do you have suggestions

on who to profile?

Please send their contact information

to ekappel@geo-prose.com.

Self-nominations are accepted.

In each issue, Oceanography magazine publishes

“career profiles” of marine scientists who have pur-

sued successful and fulfilling careers outside of aca-

demia. These profiles are intended to advise ocean

sciences graduate students about career

options other than teaching and/

or research in a university

setting. They also include

wisdom on how to go

about the job search.

We have over

50 profiles of ocean

scientists on our

web page.

Check them out!

Help TOS Fulfill Its Mission!

Recognizing excellence, disseminating knowledge,

promoting communication

The Oceanography Society welcomes financial contributions of any size to help

support the Society’s mission of disseminating knowledge of oceanography

and its application through research and education, promoting communication

among oceanographers, and providing a constituency for consensus-building

across all the disciplines of the field. Contributions are welcome in one or more of

the following areas:

• COSTARS: Career Opportunity/Student Travel and Research Support –

Supporting travel for graduate students to conferences and other institutions

and organizations

• Student Fund – Supporting programs such as the TOS Mentoring Program

• Early Career Fund – Supporting participation in career-enhancing activities

• TOS General Fund – Used for greatest needs, as recommended by the

TOS Council

To contribute go to https://tos.networkforgood.com


Seen In Oceanography


Climate, Energy, and Food Security

from the Sea

By Charles H. Greene and others

» https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.91

From the Rep

Over the past month, I’ve

started thinking a lot about

my future career. I’m still in

academia (as a postdoc), but I wonder if I

can stay, if I want to stay, and if it’s finan-

cially feasible. Maybe you are pondering

this dilemma as well, or maybe you never

even considered the academic lifestyle.

Regardless, it is helpful to assess your skills,

interests, and career options even if you

aren’t actively looking for jobs.

I’ve been reading a series of books

about careers in science (I recommend Next

Gen PhD by Melanie Sinche), and they have

some common themes. One is to identify

the skills you already have. Consider that

skills every graduate student learns, such

as technical writing, communication, and

analytical thinking, are in high demand for

many fields, not just oceanography. The

next step is to consider your interests: what

do you spend your extracurricular and free

time doing? Why did you choose an ocean-

ography program? I realized I’m interested

in improving society, and it doesn’t need to

be ocean-related. A final step is to combine

skills, interests, and values to identify career

options. This is where a career counselor is

very helpful (and often free of charge if you

are still a student!). Once you identify your

options, find a mentor in that career.

After going through this self-assess-

ment, I feel better equipped to make deci-

sions about my career as they arise. Take

some time to think about it and visit the

TOS web page (https://tos.org/opportunities)

for more career resources.

— Stefanie

Send Us

Your Feedback!

Have questions or comments for the Student Rep?

Interested in being a highlighted student?

Want to share your best career tips and tricks?

We need your input!

» studentrep@tos.org and @mnemoniko

Follow Us

The Oceanography Society


Student Resources



By Andrew D. Gaudet

» https://doi.org/10.1126/science.caredit.a1500019


Number 5 – October 17, 2017

Countdown to Ocean Sciences 2018

February 11–16 » Portland, OR, USA » osm.agu.org

OSM registration is now open! Register for the events below before they fill up.

» https://osm.agu.org/2018/registration

STUDENT & EARLY CAREER WORKSHOP. 8:30 am–4 pm, Sunday, February 11. Workshops on data

management, grant writing, and scientific communication. Coffee, lunch, and afternoon beverages

are included for all participants.

STUDENT MIXER. 6–8 pm, Monday, February 12. Refreshments provided.

MID-WEEK CAREER PANEL. 12:45–1:45 pm, Tuesday, February 13. Panel discussion on various career

options in the ocean sciences. Box lunch included.

SAVE THE DATE — TOS BREAKFAST. Tuesday, February 13, 7:00–8:00 am, Oregon Convention Center

(invitation and RSVP form coming from TOS in December).

Check here for updates » http://osm.agu.org/2018/students/student-early-career-scientist-events


Session Proposals System Now Open

Session Proposal Deadline

3 May 2017

Abstract Submissions Open

mid-Jul y 2017

Abstract Deadline

6 Sept 2017

11–16 February • Portland, Oregon, USA

News & Views

OUR OCEAN CONFERENCE. On October 5–6, 2017, the European Union hosted the fourth Our

Ocean conference in Malta. Explore the conference website to learn more about global commit-

ments toward sustaining a healthy ocean in six principal areas » https://ourocean2017.org


TOS Student Member Highlight

GUALTIERO SPIRO JAEGER. Shepherding is an under-appreciated task: always

challenging, rewarding when successful. Instead of jolly sheep on a Swiss meadow, I

guided research articles into a special issue of Oceanography.

Two years earlier, I began my PhD research in the MIT-WHOI Joint Program, working with Amala

Mahadevan as part of a collaboration investigating the northern Indian Ocean’s connection with

monsoon weather over Southeast Asia. Working on a research vessel together with an international

group of scientists and students from the United States, India, and Sri Lanka was an enriching expe-

rience. Later, as results emerged, I had the opportunity to assist the guest editors of the June 2016

special issue of Oceanography on the “Bay of Bengal: From Monsoons to Mixing” by managing the

article workflow from start to finish. As a student, I was in a unique position of facilitating communi-

cation between authors, guest editors who were also coauthors, reviewers, and the Oceanography

editor. To avoid conflicts of interests, I compartmentalized the assignment of anonymous peer

reviews, while recusing myself from the process for an article I coauthored. Producing from a collec-

tion of manuscripts the desired coherent and appealing structure also involved sourcing relevant

photographs from field experiments, soliciting graphics, and deciding the article order, in consulta-

tion with the different editors. The task required dedication and attention to details, while keeping

sight of the overall vision and meeting deadlines. Proud of the final product, I’m grateful for the

valuable experience gained managing the process, and I enjoyed working with the editorial team.

In Oceanography


60 ocean scientists who have

pursued jobs outside of aca-

demia have contributed to

Oceanography’s Career Profiles

column. Read about their

career trajectories and sug-

gestions on how to go about

looking for jobs.

» https://tos.org/career-profiles

CALL FOR INPUT! Want to see more

profiles? Have other questions to ask?

Interested in different careers? Please

tell us what you think about this

column. » studentrep@tos.org

From the Rep

Welcome to the very first

TOS Student Newsletter!

Let me introduce myself. I

am Stefanie Mack, the TOS Council Student

Representative. I was elected to serve a

three-year term in 2016, and I provide

the Council with a student’s perspective

on current issues and Council decisions. I

recently received my PhD in oceanography

from Old Dominion University, and started

a postdoc at the University of Washington.

This is an exciting time to be the stu-

dent rep, as TOS is focusing on what it

can do for student members. Perhaps you

noticed that student membership is now

free! Or that we are in the testing phase of

a new mentorship program, designed to

help students explore career options out-

side of academia. There are more student-

centric ideas in the pipeline, including

some specifically for the next Ocean

Sciences Meeting.

I want to make TOS a great organization

that supports students. So, let me know.

What do you want out of your member-

ship? What information or opportunities

are you missing? Have any brilliant ideas

about ways to make graduate school life

better? Check out the feedback box for

ways to get in touch.

– Stefanie

Meet Your TOS Student Subcommittee Member

NUNZIA PIRRO. I always liked challenges: they make life less boring and more

exciting. My intellectual curiosity and passion for learning weren’t satiated after com-

pleting a Master’s degree in structural engineering. For this reason, I started my PhD

in physical oceanography while on a boat in the Indian Ocean. It was a great opportunity, a unique

experience, and a different way to start my studies. My home institution, the University of Notre

Dame (Indiana), is actively involved in field campaigns in the northern Indian Ocean with the goal

to understand air-sea interaction in the Bay of Bengal.

Being a TOS subcommittee student member is a bigger and newer challenge for me. My aim is to

serve the TOS student community positively, by both improving our education in ocean science and

giving voice to students’ opinions, advice, and concerns. I will use the skills set and competencies

I have acquired in past years while serving in the Engineering Student Association to help grow

ocean science community awareness and impact within the university setting. I wish to create a

challenging and fruitful environment for students.

Send Us Your Feedback!

Have questions or comments for the Student Rep?

Interested in being a highlighted student?

Want to share your best career tips and tricks?

We need your input!

» studentrep@tos.org and @mnemoniko

Follow Us

The Oceanography Society


Career Tips


IT IS! Definitions and expectations for

CVs and resumes vary by job type and by

country. Make sure you have the correct

document in the correct format for your

next job application.


Try creating a timeline by working back-

ward from that date. Figure out approxi-

mate times for important events such as

exams and your thesis defense. Remember

to leave extra time for responses from com-

mittee members. You never know when

someone will be in the field or on vacation.

Countdown to Ocean Sciences 2018

February 11–16 » Portland, OR, USA » osm.agu.org

Join us at the 2018 Ocean Sciences Meeting. Explore a broad array of marine science topics

and broaden your connections within the oceanography community. More student activities are in

the works, including a Student and Early Career Conference on Sunday, February 11. Keep your eyes

on this section for information!

ABSTRACTS. Submissions open mid-July 2017; deadline September 6, 2017

FUNDING. Student and early career attendees will be eligible to apply for limited travel support

to the Ocean Sciences Meeting. Be sure to also check with your department or institution to see if

scholarships are available to fund student conference travel.

Student Resources

INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN. An IDP helps you explore career possibilities and set goals to

follow the career path that fits you best. » https://myidp.sciencecareers.org

TOS RESOURCES PAGE. Find job and fellowship links, shiptime opportunities, and helpful articles

and websites. » https://tos.org/opportunities


Number 1 – June 15, 2017


Session Proposals System Now Open

Session Proposal Deadline

3 May 2017

Abstract Submissions Open

mid-Jul y 2017

Abstract Deadline

6 Sept 2017

11–16 February • Portland, Oregon, USA

News & Views


managing your time so that you can

lead more of a life outside of the lab.

» https://www.nature.com/naturejobs/



Seen In Oceanography


Conservation Challenges for the

Great Whales in a Post-Whaling World

By Phillip J. Clapham

» https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.70

Seen In Oceanography


Conservation Challenges for the

Great Whales in a Post-Whaling World

By Phillip J. Clapham

» https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.70

From the Rep

If you haven’t been able to

tell from the past several

issues of this newsletter, I’ve

been spending a good bit of time thinking

about my professional future. There is a

lot more to figuring out your career path

than tidying up your CV and job searching.

While mentoring can help you succeed in

your chosen role, and self-assessment can

help you decide what that role is, network-

ing is where the opportunities are.

It sounds a bit intimidating at first. I

picture myself awkwardly approaching an

Important Person, stumbling over my ele-

vator speech, and leaving them, minutes

later, with nothing but a bad impression.

Erase this sort of imagery from your mind.

Networking is just getting to know people.

No agenda, no pressure. It’s not introducing

yourself to Important Person so they know

who you are, realize you are awesome, and

subsequently offer you a permanent, high

paying job. Instead, it’s recognizing that

Important Person does interesting work,

and commenting on or asking a question

about that work, preferably after being

introduced by someone who knows you

both. Easy peasy. Just a simple conversation

about cool science (or any other common

ground, really). And repeat. After a while,

you’ll have a whole list of people you know.

This is your network. Then it’s quite easy

to send a quick email to Important Person

Friend saying that you started looking for

jobs in a certain field and do they have

any suggestions? The Resources section

links to more information on networking.

Brush up and get ready to network at the

Ocean Sciences Meeting!

— Stefanie

Send Us Your Feedback!

Have questions or comments for the Student Rep?

Interested in being a highlighted student?

Want to share your best career tips and tricks?

We need your input!

» studentrep@tos.org and @mnemoniko

Follow Us

The Oceanography Society


Student Resources


Seven Myths Dispelled

Grad Logic Blog

» http://gradlogic.org/why-network


Number 6 – November 15, 2017

Countdown to Ocean Sciences 2018

February 11–16 » Portland, OR, USA » osm.agu.org

OSM registration and housing are now open! Register by early January to obtain discounted rates.

REGISTRATION » https://osm.agu.org/2018/registration | HOUSING » https://osm.agu.org/2018/housing

• STUDENT MIXER. 6–8 pm, Monday, Feb 12, Oregon Convention Center (refreshments provided).

• SAVE THE DATE—TOS BREAKFAST. 7–8 am, Tuesday, Feb 13, Oregon Convention Center (invita-

tion and RSVP form coming from TOS in December).

• K–12 MENTORS NEEDED. Wednesday, Feb 14. Help mentor students at OSM K–12 Day. Includes

student-mentor luncheon (box lunch provided). Interested? Contact abstracts@agu.org.

• FLUID OCEANS PECHA KUCHA. 8–10 pm, Wednesday, Feb 14, at the Spirit of 77 bar right by the

Convention Center. » https://osm.agu.org/2018/meeting-wide-events-2

• POP-UP TALKS. Wednesday and Thursday, Feb 14 & 15. An interdisciplinary session for five- minute

student presentations. More information and an application form will be available later this

week at: » https://osm.agu.org/2018/students/pop-up-talks

Check here for updates » https://osm.agu.org/2018/student-and-early-career-events


Session Proposals System Now Open

Session Proposal Deadline

3 May 2017

Abstract Submissions Open

mid-Jul y 2017

Abstract Deadline

6 Sept 2017

11–16 February • Portland, Oregon, USA

News & Views

UN CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE. At the time we are putting together this newsletter, COP 23 is

convening in Bonn, Germany. COP 23 is the next step governments need to take toward implement-

ing the Paris Climate Change Agreement. » http://unfccc.int/meetings/bonn_nov_2017/meeting/10084.php


TOS Student Member Highlight

HILLARY SCANNELL. The Graduate Climate Conference (GCC) is a three-day

meeting convened annually for graduate students in climate-related fields to share

their research with other students from universities across the country who work

on similar problems. What makes the GCC so unique is that it is entirely run by graduate students,

for graduate students. The responsibility of organizing and hosting this event typically alternates

between the University of Washington and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

I first attended the GCC in 2014 as a master’s student from the University of Maine, and again in

2016 as the GCC co-chair and PhD student from the University of Washington. Being involved as

both an attendee and organizing committee member has been an enriching networking experi-

ence and has taught me valuable collaboration and organization skills. A committee of 16 graduate

students from the University of Washington started organizing the conference a year in advance

and formed smaller subcommittees to address fundraising, communications, logistics, and adver-

tising. My role as the GCC co-Chair was to oversee the subcommittees to make sure all components

came together smoothly and to help moderate the conference the day of the event.

The GCC is now going into its 11th year and was convened in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, from

November 10–12, 2017. Getting involved is a great way to make connections during graduate

school and “teach” your research to other students. We all have something to learn from each other.

More information on GCC 2017 is available at http://gradclimateconf.mit.edu.

Oceanography | June 2018

Oceanography | June 2018


We celebrated The Oceanography Society’s thirtieth anniversary

at the February Ocean Sciences Meeting in Portland, Oregon.

Among the week’s highlights (aside from the t-shirt giveaway)

was a gathering of past presidents (see photo) at the TOS break-

fast and a moving talk by Jim Baker about the Society’s founding

(available at https://youtu.be/rUzgpv9qilo).

As Jim noted in his remarks, the Society has matured over the

past three decades. Along with publishing Oceanography, TOS

gives awards, hosts meetings, connects people—all of the typical

things that societies do for their members. We need to acknowl-

edge that many founding members, ocean scientists who under-

stood 30 years ago that our field needed a society of its own,

are moving into retirement. This reality underscores the impor-

tance of the TOS initiative to grow our membership by attract-

ing young people—a diverse group of students and early career

scientists from academia, government agencies, and private

businesses around the world. Our forward trajectory is upward,

with youthful energy.

Along with our move to attract new members, we also need to

find creative ways to keep our senior-most members engaged in

TOS. These long-time members are an enormous storehouse of

wisdom and practical knowledge about how to build the field—

we depend upon many programs and research structures that

they created. Let’s find ways to transfer their wisdom to the new

generation of leaders who will take the wheel and steer the TOS

ship toward new waters.

How can we do this? The TOS Council is looking for ideas.

Would our senior members consider serving on an advisory

group that would mentor our younger members into leadership

positions? Or perhaps they could simply have a conversation

with our student members over coffee at meetings? Can they

help with our strategy of strengthening the ties between aca-

demic, government, and industry sectors—all important parts

of ocean sciences? Can they help to build international connec-

tions? Knowing how we got where we are today will benefit our

young generation of ocean scientists—who best to impart that

wisdom but our founding (and other long-term) members.

Senior TOS members, if any of these ideas resonate with you,

or you have others to share, please contact me and let’s talk.

Younger members—when you see our senior members at

meetings, introduce yourself, ask them questions. Soak up that

wisdom—and lead on.

Alan C. Mix, TOS President

of TOS and the Wisdom of Our Founders

The Oceanography Society presidents gathered at the TOS Breakfast, held February 13, 2018, included, from left, Ken Brink, Jim Baker, Margaret Leinen,

Jim Yoder, Martin Visbeck (president-elect), Alan Mix (president), Arnold Gordon, Mike Roman, Rick Spinrad.

Oceanography | Vol.31, No.2


Advice for Young Scientists on

Fruitful Membership in the Scientific Community

By Emmanuel Boss

Off and on for the past 20 years I have been

co-teaching an intense summer course in

optical oceanography. During the course,

graduate students and postdocs often

take the opportunity to ask my colleagues

and me questions about how they should

comport themselves as part of a scien-

tific community. During the most recent

course, I spent a class period speaking to

this issue. From the comments I received,

the students clearly were appreciative, and

I have since shared my notes with col-

leagues, many of whom found them use-

ful and have added materials of their own.

Here, I convey some of the lessons we

have learned through the years about

strategies for navigating within the sci-

entific community. They are by no means

comprehensive, nor have they been inves-

tigated scientifically, but I hope readers

will find them useful.


Basically, we want to have a reputation

for doing good science, and we want

people to use the science we produce

(e.g., by citing our work). A respectable

citation list is necessary for marketing

ourselves when we are seeking a job or

a promotion, or hope to join an expert

committee— and also for feeling engaged

in a meaningful endeavor. The associated

concept in marketing is the brand. Our

brand is our name.

It is self-evident that to enhance our

brand it should be associated with quality

work. It follows that we should be careful

about what papers we lend our name to or

the work we choose to accept (e.g., con-

sulting for a dubious “scientific” com-

pany). It is hard to change one’s brand,

as we operate in small communities that

have long-term memories. It is therefore

critical that we espouse a long-term view,

one of delayed gratification, rather than

one of short-term gain (e.g., a paper in a

high-impact journal with dubious data to

help with tenure) that could compromise

the longevity of our brand.

Other strategies to enhance your brand

involve being kind to others, and sharing

your ideas. While in rare cases somebody

might run off with your idea and not give

you credit, in which case you should be

careful sharing with them in the future, it

is more likely that it will result in a mean-

ingful collaboration. For many, collabora-

tion is one of the most joyful components

of the scientific enterprise. Your reputa-

tion as a human being, not only for the

science you produce, can also have sig-

nificant consequences for your future (in

particular, when job hunting). Sharing

can also result in papers written by col-

leagues who undertake the work you

don’t have time for. Never hesitate to

contact your peers if you have construc-

tive criticism to offer. They will appreci-

ate the help. Also, don’t let people wait for

your response to their queries. They will

choose to work with those who respond.

Looking at science as a zero-sum

game—thinking that a colleague’s success

comes at our own expense—is myopic

and counterproductive. The more diverse

approaches included, the more likely our

subfield will be able to provide useful

solutions, benefiting us all. A collabora-

tive approach also helps us to better make

the case for the importance of our sub-

field in order to increase resources and

attract young talent to it.

Marketing is also about communicat-

ing your brand and its products. Doing

great work that is not shared is like

inventing a great product that nobody

knows about. The product of your science

should be easily available. The more clicks

it takes to obtain the PDF of your article,

the less likely it is to be read (and hence

cited). If your paper is only available from

the publisher’s site, and additionally with

a fee, the likelihood it will be read by a sci-

entist at a poor university with no library

access is slim. On the other hand, if it

comes up in a simple search on the topic

with a link to a PDF, it is much more likely

to be read, and if relevant, cited. Sending

your papers to experts who you think will

appreciate it is perfectly OK and will save

you the grief of seeing their publication

on a subject you have been sweating on

that does not cite your work (it is also OK

to send it to them after the fact to ensure

they are aware of your work). Working on

topics of wide interest, while resulting in

more competition, is also more reward-

ing. It will increase the number of people

your work touches.

If you are interested in being invited to

join expert committees and possibly be

approached about jobs, you should have

an up-to-date and comprehensive per-

sonal website. Whether you should post

your PDF on your non-commercial web-

site is a matter of debate. I buy my publi-

cation rights whenever I am first author.

If a publisher should ever ask me to

remove a PDF, I will reconsider review-

ing for this publisher (an essential work

we do for free).



A science career is not for everyone. Given

the many privileges that may be associated

with it (e.g., flexibility in hours, travel, sal-

ary, status, job security for some), it is

not possible to succeed without working

hard, often way beyond a “normal” work-

week. It is therefore very important to

learn to manage time well and find strat-

egies to ensure you have time for yourself

to avoid burnout. As participants in a cre-

ative line of work, our egos are often on

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