March 2018

Special Issue on the Ocean Observatories Initiative

Special Issue on the

Ocean Observatories Initiative



VOL.31, NO.1, MARCH 2018

VOL. 31, NO. 1, MARCH 2018

Ian Walsh, Ph.D., Director of Science

Nutrient and Estuarine Processes Driven by Hurricane Irma Recorded by

the Indian River Lagoon Observatory Network of Environmental Sensors

Friday, February 16, 2018; 3:36-3:48 PM, Oregon Convention Center, F151

Measuring Calibration and Field Variance Scales in Oceanographic

Optical Instrumentation Data for Quality Assurance

Tuesday, February 13, 2018; 4:00-6:00 PM, Oregon Convention Center, Poster Hall

Charles W. Branham, Ph.D., Senior Chemist

Field Validation of ISFET Based Ocean pH Sensors

Wednesday February 14, 2018; 4:00-6:00 PM, Oregon Convention Center, Poster Hall

Kim Martini, Ph.D., Senior Oceanographer

Dynamic Corrections for Sea-Bird Surface Temperature Salinity

Sensors (STS) on ARGO Profiling Floats

Monday, February 12, 2018; 4:00-6:00 PM, Oregon Convention Center, Poster Hall

David J. Murphy, MS, Director of Science

Determination of Conductivity Cell Compressibility for Argo

Program CTDs and MicroCATs

Tuesday, February 13, 2018; 4:00-6:00 PM, Oregon Convention Center, Poster Hall

+1 425 643 9866 | |

Sea-Bird Scientific Presentations at the

2018 Ocean Sciences Meeting

See Us at Booth 113

Oceanography | March 2018















~10 times water depth


VOL. 31, NO. 1, MARCH 2018


FROM THE GUEST EDITORS. Introduction to the Special Issue on

the Ocean Observatories Initiative

By L.M. Smith, T.J. Cowles, R.D. Vaillancourt, and S. Yelisetti


The Ocean Observatories Initiative

By L.M. Smith, J.A. Barth, D.S. Kelley, A. Plueddemann, I. Rodero, G.A. Ulses,

M.F. Vardaro, and R. Weller


Sidebar > Accessing OOI Data

By M.F. Vardaro and J. McDonnell


On the Relationship Between the Global Ocean Observing System and

the Ocean Observatories Initiative

By E. Lindstrom


The North Atlantic Biological Pump: Insights from the Ocean Observatories

Initiative Irminger Sea Array

By H.I. Palevsky and D.P. Nicholson


Deep Convection in the Irminger Sea Observed with a Dense Mooring Array

By M.F. de Jong, M. Oltmanns, J. Karstensen, and L. de Steur


The Changing Nature of Shelf-Break Exchange Revealed by the

OOI Pioneer Array

By G. Gawarkiewicz, R.E. Todd, W. Zhang, J. Partida, A. Gangopadhyay, M.-U.-H. Monim,

P. Fratantoni, A. Malek Mercer, and M. Dent


Sidebar > SeaView: Bringing Together an Ocean of Data

By K. Stocks, S. Diggs, C. Olson, A. Pham, R. Arko, A. Shepherd, and D. Kinkade


Atmospheric and Offshore Forcing of Temperature Variability at the

Shelf Break: Observations from the OOI Pioneer Array

By K. Chen, G. Gawarkiewicz, and A. Plueddemann


Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Physical and Biological Properties

along the Endurance Array of the California Current Ecosystem

By F. Henderikx Freitas, G.S. Saldías, M. Goñi, R.K. Shearman, and A.E. White


Warm Blobs, Low-Oxygen Events, and an Eclipse: The Ocean Observatories

Initiative Endurance Array Captures Them All

By J.A. Barth, J.P. Fram, E.P. Dever, C.M. Risien, C.E. Wingard, R.W. Collier,

and T.D. Kearney


Power from Benthic Microbial Fuel Cells Drives Autonomous Sensors

and Acoustic Modems

By C.E. Reimers and M. Wolf

104 The Role of the Ocean Observatories Initiative in Monitoring the Offshore

Earthquake Activity of the Cascadia Subduction Zone

By A.M. Tréhu, W.S.D. Wilcock, R. Hilmo, P. Bodin, J. Connolly, E.C. Roland,

and J. Braunmiller


The Ocean Observatories Initiative




Oceanography | March 2018

Oceanography | Vol.31, No.1


The Oceanography Society

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Production of this issue of Oceanography

was supported by the Consortium for

Ocean Leadership through National Science

Foundation Cooperative Support Agreement




Consortium for Ocean Leadership


Oregon State University (emeritus)


Millersville University


Texas A&M University-Kingsville


The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) is a National Science Foundation

major research facility operated as a community resource, providing con-

tinuous delivery of ocean and seafloor data from the coast to the open

ocean in the Atlantic and the Pacific. The map shows the locations of the

seven OOI arrays (image credit: OOI Cabled Array program & the Center

for Environmental Visualization, University of Washington). Inset photos

show infrastructure from the Coastal, Global, and Cabled Arrays (clockwise

from top): deployment of a Pioneer Array Coastal Surface Mooring from

R/V Atlantis (credit: OOI Pioneer Array Program, WHOI); Irminger Sea

Global Surface Mooring waits on the deck of R/V Knorr for deployment

(credit: OOI Global Array Program, WHOI); Endurance Array Coastal

Surface Mooring components await deployment (credit: OOI Global Array

Program, OSU); digital still camera deployed on Axial Seamount captures

the El Gordo hydrothermal vent and attached OOI Cabled Array instru-

mentation (credit: NSF-OOI/UW/ISS; Dive R1839; V15).



The Recent Volcanic History of Axial Seamount: Geophysical

Insights into Past Eruption Dynamics with an Eye Toward Enhanced

Observations of Future Eruptions

By W.S.D. Wilcock, R.P. Dziak, M. Tolstoy, W.W. Chadwick Jr., S.L. Nooner,

D.R. Bohnenstiehl, J. Caplan-Auerbach, F. Waldhauser, A.F. Arnulf, C. Baillard,

T.-K. Lau, J.H. Haxel, Y.J. Tan, C. Garcia, S. Levy, and M.E. Mann

124 A Tale of Two Eruptions: How Data from Axial Seamount Led to

a Discovery on the East Pacific Rise

By M. Tolstoy, W.S.D. Wilcock, Y.J. Tan, and F. Waldhauser

127 Sidebar > Axial Seamount Biology Catalog

By K. Bigham

128 Deep-Sea Volcanic Eruptions Create Unique Chemical and

Biological Linkages Between the Subsurface Lithosphere and the

Oceanic Hydrosphere

By R.L. Spietz, D.A. Butterfield, N.J. Buck, B.I. Larson, W.W. Chadwick Jr., S.L. Walker,

D.S. Kelley, and R.M. Morris

136 Sidebar > Get Engaged with the Ocean Observatories Initiative

By G.A. Ulses, L.M. Smith, and T.J. Cowles

138 Education and Public Engagement in OOI: Lessons Learned

from the Field

By J. McDonnell, A. deCharon, C.S. Lichtenwalner, K. Hunter-Thomson, C. Halversen,

O. Schofield, S. Glenn, C. Ferraro, C. Lauter, and J. Hewlett

147 Sidebar > Seastate: Experiential C-STEM Learning Through Environmental

Sensor Building

By D.S. Kelley and D. Grünbaum



QUARTERDECK. The Squirrelly Thing About Knowledge

By E.S. Kappel


FROM THE PRESIDENT. On Mentoring of Graduate Students

By A.C. Mix


RIPPLE MARKS. Icon of Chesapeake Winter Still Graces the Bay

By C.L. Dybas

148 THE OCEANOGRAPHY CLASSROOM. Are You a Marine Major or Minor?

By S. Boxall

150 CAREER PROFILES. Heather Havens, Vice President, Program Develop-

ment, National Defense Industrial Association • Andreas Krupke,

Scientist III, Verification & Validation Department, Thermo Fisher Scientific

Oceanography | Vol.31, No.1

Oceanography | March 2018


Ellen S. Kappel

Geosciences Professional Services Inc.

5610 Gloster Road

Bethesda, MD 20816 USA

t: (1) 301-229-2709


Vicky Cullen

PO Box 687

West Falmouth, MA 02574 USA

t: (1) 508-548-1027


Cheryl Lyn Dybas


Johanna Adams


Oceanography contains peer-reviewed articles that chronicle all aspects of

ocean science and its applications. The journal presents significant research,

noteworthy achievements, exciting new technology, and articles that address

public policy and education and how they are affected by science and technol-

ogy. The overall goal of Oceanography is cross-disciplinary communication in

the ocean sciences.

Oceanography (ISSN 1042-8275) is published by The Oceanography

Society, 1 Research Court, Suite 450, Rockville, MD 20850 USA. ©2018 The

Oceanography Society Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted for indi-

viduals to copy articles from this magazine for personal use in teaching and

research, and to use figures, tables, and short quotes from the magazine for

republication in scientific books and journals. There is no charge for any of

these uses, but the material must be cited appropriately.

Republication, systemic reproduction, or collective redistribution of any mate-

rial in Oceanography is permitted only with the approval of The Oceanography

Society. Please contact Jennifer Ramarui at


Margaret L. (Peggy) Delaney

University of California, Santa Cruz

Charles H. Greene

Cornell University

Kiyoshi Suyehiro

Yokohama Institute for Earth

Sciences, JAMSTEC

Peter Wadhams

University of Cambridge

The Oceanography Society was founded in 1988

to advance oceanographic research, technology,

and education, and to disseminate knowledge of

oceanography and its application through research

and education. TOS promotes the broad under-

standing of oceanography, facilitates consensus

building across all the disciplines of the field, and

informs the public about ocean research, innova-

tive technology, and educational opportunities

throughout the spectrum of oceanographic inquiry.






TREASURER: Susan Banahan


AT-LARGE: Dennis McGillicuddy




EDUCATION: Carolyn Scheurle





Jennifer Ramarui










The Oceanography Society

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t: (1) 301-251-7708

f: (1) 301-251-7709


Oceanography | March 2018

Oceanography | Vol.31, No.1

Check Out Our Career Profiles Page!

Do you have suggestions

on who to profile?

Please send their

contact information to


are accepted.

In each issue, Oceanography magazine publishes “career profiles” of marine

scientists who have pursued successful and fulfilling careers outside of aca-

demia. These profiles are intended to advise ocean sciences graduate stu-

dents about career options other than teaching and/or research in a univer-

sity setting. They also include wisdom on how to go about the job search.

We have over 50 profiles of ocean scientists on our web page.

Check them out!

Visit The Oceanography Classroom

Oceanography’s education columnists share their wisdom and insight in

The Oceanography Classroom each issue. Go to

where you can find all published columns.

Looking for Insight

on education?

Interested in Undergraduate

and Graduate Education?

Check out Oceanography’s Hands-On

Oceanography page

hands-on-oceanography that contains

peer-reviewed activities that will help you

teach fundamental oceanography concepts

in undergraduate and graduate classrooms.




Oceanography | March 2018

On this gray winter day, I look out my family room window at the suet

feeder I just filled. Although I set this wintertime feeder out for the birds—

and even make my own suet (please contact me if you’d like the recipe)—I

know that the main beneficiaries of the food are the squirrels. With that

knowledge, I devise my own pitiful defenses against these clever and dex-

terous rodents, using twist-ties to prevent the squirrels from opening the

feeder, and slathering hot-pepper-infused shortening on the line from

which the feeder hangs to provide a lasting mouthful of fire. In the end, the

birds and I are the losers. The squirrels always prevail.

Watching the birds and squirrels leads to thoughts about observation

and experimentation. Those tools are the basis of conducting science, but

non-scientists use those same skills in solving everyday problems at work

and at home. A driver looks at the fuel gauge that is near empty and calcu-

lates whether she can make it to the next gas station. A shopper compares

prices and features on a new refrigerator to decide which one to purchase.

A vacationer checks the weather at his destination to know what clothes

to pack. A cook finds substitutes for missing ingredients when preparing a

recipe. A homeowner investigates the source of a leak when she sees a stain

on the ceiling. And yet, the same people who solve problems every day in

their work and home lives somehow reject the results of the same process of

observation and experimentation when those results are generated by uni-

versities, government agencies, and other components of Big Science. Why?

One of the great challenges of our time is educating the public that they

are scientists and mathematicians and engineers each and every day, and

that academic and government scientists aren’t strange people who pos-

sess some set of magical skills and work in secret laboratories. Along with

that understanding may come less fear and more appreciation of science

and less resistance to policy solutions that may involve short-term sacri-

fice for the sake of the long-term health of our planet. If people saw them-

selves as problem solvers, and saw scientists as fellow citizens who are just

trying to determine, on a larger scale, whether the fuel gauge is nearing

empty, we might be able to tackle pressing social and environmental issues

in a more congenial manner. Perhaps we can start by together solving that

knotty problem of keeping squirrels away from bird feeders, and then con-

tinue our collaborations on thornier issues.

Ellen S. Kappel, Editor







June 2018

Ocean Warming

September 2018 — Double Issue

1. Mathematical Aspects of Physical


2. Gulf of San Jorge, Patagonia, Argentina

December 2018

Scientific Ocean Drilling:

Looking to the Future (tentative)

In addition to the special issues articles,

Oceanography solicits and publishes:

• Peer-reviewed articles that chronicle

all aspects of ocean science and its


• News and information, meeting reports,

hands-on laboratory exercises, career

profiles, and book reviews

• Editor-reviewed articles that address

public policy and education and how they

are affected by science and technology

• Breaking Waves articles that describe

novel approaches to multidisciplinary

problems in ocean science

Special Issues

Call for Submissions



Oceanography | Vol.31, No.1

The origins of The Oceanography Society are rooted in

bringing together and recognizing individuals from all

fields of oceanography, representing the broad interests

of members in research, engineering, industry, policy, and

education, and the diversity and international nature of the

society. TOS members from all areas of oceanography will

be considered for the Fellows Program. A recommenda-

tion for advancement to TOS Fellow is appropriate after an

individual has been a TOS member for at least three years,

depending on his or her contributions to the field.

The main criteria for being elected a TOS Fellow are out-

standing and sustained contributions, and devotion to

the broad field of oceanography, commensurate with the

founding principles of the Society.

Nominations Deadline » October 31, 2018

Learn More »

Recognizing Individuals Who Have Attained Eminence in Oceanography Through

Their Outstanding Contributions to the Field of Oceanography or Its Applications


TOS Fellows Program

Help TOS Fulfill Its Mission!

Recognizing excellence, disseminating knowledge,

promoting communication

The Oceanography Society welcomes financial contributions of any size to

help support the Society’s mission of disseminating knowledge of ocean-

ography and its application through research and education, promoting

communication among oceanographers, and providing a constituency for

consensus-building across all the disciplines of the field. Contributions are

welcome in one or more of the following areas:

• COSTARS: Career Opportunity/Student Travel and Research

Support – Supporting travel for graduate students to conferences and

other institutions and organizations

• Student Fund – Supporting programs such as the TOS Mentoring


• Early Career Fund – Supporting participation in career-enhancing


• TOS General Fund – Used for greatest needs, as recommended by the

TOS Council

To contribute go to

Oceanography | March 2018

Last year, The Oceanography Society started a mentoring pro-

gram to provide guidance to graduate students on how to

survive graduate school and find a satisfying career path-

way. Academic “elders” paired with co-mentors from indus-

try and government conduct monthly teleconferences with

small groups of students. Susan Lozier initiated this TOS pro-

gram following her term as president, building on her experi-

ence with the Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to

Increase Retention (MPOWIR) program (,

which addresses some of the “leaky pipeline” issues for women

in physical oceanography. (You can read more about MPOWIR

and its positive impact on the field as a whole in previous issues

of Oceanography, e.g., Lozier 2005, 2009; Coles et al., 2011;

Clem et al., 2014.)

Using MPOWIR as model, TOS began its own prototype pro-

gram with two mixed-gender mentoring groups whose mem-

bers span all the fields of ocean science and technology and are

drawn from a wide range of universities across the United States.

In the future, we hope to expand the program internationally.

By combining participants from many institutions, we hope to

foster networks of young scientists who will build the future

of ocean sciences. As one of the participating members, here I

share some early results of this experiment.

The initial premise of the TOS program is that the mentors

will provide sage advice to the graduate students about career

pathways, among other topics. Certainly, we’ve done some of

that. We have had some interesting discussions about network-

ing, and have read some practical guidebooks on productive

networking. We’ve talked a bit about writing and speaking and

how to use storytelling techniques to get a message across. We’ve

addressed time management, and of course we’ve talked about

concerns regarding finding satisfying employment after gradu-

ate school. But it is also true that the students are mentoring the

mentors, teaching us about what they need. It is far too easy for

academic faculty to forget what it was like to be a graduate stu-

dent, but hearing the students’ concerns is enlightening. While a

graduate school experience can be good if an advisor is patient,

fair, thoughtful, and responsive to students, not every advisor

provides students with the training necessary for future success

as a faculty member, such as how to deal with graduate students

or how to teach effectively.

Some universities now have mentoring programs, but cer-

tainly not all. I recently reviewed the web pages of most of the

oceanographic programs in the United States and a few abroad,

and found several programs that have senior faculty serve as

mentors for junior faculty. These programs are a great start, but

these same pages offer relatively little about best practices in

mentoring graduate students, or training the students to become

future mentors. Despite promotion and tenure dossiers that

require applicants to write about their philosophy of education

related to teaching and mentoring, these web pages lack any state-

ments about institutional philosophies or practices. This is odd.

There is no single way to be a good mentor—we all have

unique strengths and personalities that we bring to the task—

but some attention paid to this most important (most joyful,

most frustrating, and most rewarding) faculty task will go a

long way toward improving our programs. For faculty members

who might like to start exploring some of these general mento-

ring issues, I recommend the MPOWIR Handbook (Clem et al.,

2016). Within TOS, we plan to build on our prototype program.

Over the next few years, we anticipate producing some gen-

eral materials on best practices in mentoring of graduate stu-

dents. I hope that our institutions will use, adapt, or build on

these guidelines. As we develop TOS guidelines for mentoring in

ocean sciences, I welcome input from faculty members and pro-

grams that have addressed mentoring issues. Perhaps a start in

shining a light on mentoring would be for TOS to initiate some

mechanisms to reward high-quality mentoring; my own institu-

tion has a student-administered award for mentoring that is one

of the highest honors a faculty member can receive.

For me, participating in the TOS mentoring program is reas-

suring in that it reinforces my view that the future of ocean sci-

ences will be in great hands as the young generation of students

and early career scientists steps up and takes the reins. I look for-

ward to learning more as the TOS program continues.

Alan C. Mix, TOS President


Clem, S., S. Legg, S. Lozier, and C. Mouw. 2014. The impact of MPOWIR:

A decade of investing in mentoring women in physical oceanography.

Oceanography 27(4) supplement:39–48,


Clem, S., C. Mouw, and S. Legg. 2016. MPOWIR Handbook. Available at:

Coles, V., L. Gerber, S. Legg, and S. Lozier. 2011. Commentary: Mentoring

groups— A non-exit strategy for women in physical oceanography.

Oceanography 24(2):17–20,

Lozier, M.S. 2005. A community effort toward the retention of women in phys-

ical oceanography. Oceanography 18(1):35–38,


Lozier, M.S. 2009. Conference report: A successful first Pattullo Conference.

Oceanography 22(1):224–225,

On Mentoring of Graduate Students


Oceanography | Vol.31, No.1


Icon of Chesapeake Winter

Still Graces the Bay

“They came back. This winter.” Biologist Donald Webster’s voice has a wistful note, won-

dering if the king of ducks, as the beautiful, crimson-headed canvasback is known, will

return to rule Chesapeake Bay in future seasons.

Bundled in parka, gloves, and hat, Webster, waterfowl coordinator for the Maryland

Department of Natural Resources, raises his binoculars near a seawall at the confluence

of the Chesapeake and the Choptank River in Cambridge, Maryland. The overlook is

a mecca for wintering canvasbacks and other ducks. Chesapeake Bay is the largest

estuary in the United States and one of the most productive water bodies in the world,

attracting myriad waterfowl species.

“Canvasbacks, the ducks everyone comes to see, are usually here in force by

Christmas, sometimes by Thanksgiving,” Webster says. “They stay through early to mid-

March, then they’re gone, heading north to nesting grounds.”

Chesapeake skies fill with migrating

ducks—canvasbacks, buffleheads, greater

and lesser scaup, and many others—from

December through March. The bay is the

Atlantic Coast’s most important water-

fowl migration and wintering area. The

Chesapeake and its 19 major tributaries

offer refuge to 24 species of ducks as well

as Canada geese, greater snow geese,

and tundra swans.

“Long-term worsening of the bay’s

water quality, however, and loss of habitat,

especially the grasses so many of these

birds depend upon, have contributed to

declines in wintering waterfowl popula-

tions,” says Webster.


An estimated 97,433 acres (400 km2)

of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV)

remained in the bay and its tributaries in

2016, down from historic levels that may

have reached more than 600,000 acres

(2,500 km2).

There’s good news, however, in the

2016 estimate. It’s an 8% increase over

2015, and more than twice the SAV in the

bay in 2013.

In 2011, the Chesapeake’s SAV declined

to 48,195 acres (195 km2), a result of the

effects of Hurricane Irene and Tropical

Storm Lee. The storms sent a flood of

sediment cascading down rivers and into

the bay. After 2011, conditions became

relatively dry, reducing the flow of

grass-smothering sand and mud. More

sunlight reached submerged grasses,

allowing them to rebound. In return,

the SAV filtered runoff, helping keep

Chesapeake waters clear.

Forty years ago, SAV reached what

may be its lowest point in parts of the

bay. Another major storm, Tropical Storm

Agnes in 1972, nearly wiped out the SAV

at Susquehanna Flats, an expansive bed

of grasses where the Susquehanna River

Oceanography | Vol.31, No.1




On this late January morning with calm

winds and temperatures that hover just

above freezing, the canvasbacks’ red

heads stand out in quiet, winter-dark

waters. The ducks glide near the sea-

wall, where a dozen photographers jostle

for the quintessential shot of an iconic

Chesapeake species. “This place is known

as the ‘wall of shame,’” laughs Webster,

“because it’s almost too easy to get great

canvasback pictures here.”

After the warm winter of 2015–2016

and its low numbers of canvasbacks,

they’ve arrived in large flocks this season


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